League for Innovation in the Community College tag:www.league.org,2015:/blog/ Mango 1.4.3 Developmental Education: A Policy Primer urn:uuid:BBA7F2C1-1422-1766-9A65517E7D3B61F1 2015-01-04T12:01:40Z 2015-01-05T01:01:00Z <p>As a tribute to Bob McCabe, the League republishes his February 2001 <em>Leadership Abstracts</em> article, Developmental Education: A Policy Primer.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/leadership_abstracts.gif" alt="" /></p> <p>January 2015, Volume 28, Number 1<br /><br /> <em>From the editor: With great sadness we learned of the passing of a giant in the higher education field, our dear friend and colleague, Robert H. McCabe, on December 23, 2014. Bob served on the League for Innovation Board of Directors from 1980 to 1995 and as Board Chair in 1987. He was a major voice for community colleges, and his work in developmental education has been fundamental to reform efforts in that area. As a tribute to Bob McCabe, this month we republish his February 2001 </em>Leadership Abstracts<em> article, “Developmental Education: A Policy Primer.” The article reports on findings from the </em><em>National Study of Community College Remedial Education</em><em>, which he led.</em><br /><br /> <em>By Robert H. McCabe</em></p> <p> Few educational programs are more misunderstood and less appreciated than community college developmental education. Both legislatures and colleges afford it a low priority, yet it is essential to our nation's well being. Developmental education can be cost effective and productive, and it is easily one of the most important services provided by community colleges. With these high-yield programs already established in most community colleges, the question to ask may be, "Why aren't we paying more attention to developmental education?" As institutions examine ways to better meet the needs of their communities, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by focusing on developmental education programs. This abstract reviews the need for developmental education and the success of developmental education programs in community colleges. It concludes with steps trustees and presidents can take to ensure that developmental education is a priority at their institutions. <br /><br /> <strong>Developmental Education: A Growing Need for a Changing Nation</strong> <br /><br /> America is in a period of amazing change. We enjoy unprecedented prosperity and wondrous technology. Yet on the cusp of a new century, with all the opportunities and advancements, our nation still faces daunting challenges. To remain competitive in the global economy, we must reverse the growth of what seems to be a permanent underclass and we must develop a highly skilled workforce. The task of raising the competencies of our citizens falls on the educational system, and community colleges have a particularly important role. They educate the most deficient students, those who would otherwise be lost to our society, and prepare them for employment and personal advancement. <br /><br /> In his inaugural address, President Bush described the grandest of our ideals as the promise "that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born." That belief in the value of every human being and the commitment to fully develop the talents of all of our citizens sets us apart from other nations. It is our greatest strength, and in the information-rich America of the 21st Century, fulfilling that commitment demands universal access to postsecondary education. It redefines the mission of American education, and it can be achieved through reinvention of the K-12 system and effective community college developmental and remedial education. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Business, Industry, and Work. </em></strong>In the global economy, business and industry operate wherever costs are lowest, and the trend among manufacturers moving from the U.S. to countries with lower wage structures is expected to continue. Sustaining America's future will depend on innovations in the knowledge industries and on developing a more productive workforce. Brainpower and technology can multiply individual productivity to compensate for our higher wages and help America retain economic leadership. The countries that remain competitive in the 21st Century will be those with the highest overall literacy and educational levels and those with a strong bottom third of the population, such as Germany and Japan. <br /><br /> The workplace of tomorrow will be quite different from that of today-the result of both revolutionary and evolutionary changes. Revolutionary changes will occur as new jobs require markedly different and higher competencies. Existing jobs will continue to evolve, requiring different behaviors and job skills from those that employees now possess. Simple jobs will become high-performance jobs that require workers to reason through complex processes rather than follow rote instructions or complete the discrete steps of larger processes. These workers will need higher-order information skills as a foundation for lifelong learning. <br /><br /> It is forecast that 80 percent of new jobs will require postsecondary education. Our educational system is falling far short of matching that requirement. As young Americans enter adulthood, only 42 percent have the skills to begin college work. Throughout the country, businesses report underskilled workers and shortages of competent job applicants. They have pressured Congress to allow the importation of 300,000 highly skilled foreign workers each year to fill jobs for which Americans are not prepared. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Changing Demography. </em></strong>As the United States grows older, its population grows more diverse. By the year 2050, the nation will be nearly half minority, and the shift will be most dramatic among youth. For education, these changes are profound. Poverty has the highest correlation with educational underpreparation, and minorities, especially immigrants, have disproportionately high poverty rates. Tragically, at a time when schools are struggling to raise learning expectations, a greater number of less prepared young people will begin school. <br /><br /> Ethnicity is not the only demographic force at work, however. The graying of America will be equally important. Today, we are experiencing the impact of the post-World War II baby boom as 76 million Americans prepare to retire. Through 2030, the number of Americans in their prime work years is expected to remain constant at 160 million, while the number of individuals over 65 will increase from 33.5 million to 69.3 million. To support the growing elderly population, all Americans in their prime work years must be highly skilled and increasingly productive. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Lack of Progress for Minorities. </em></strong>Minorities have made some educational progress in recent years, but the achievement gap between minority and majority students is still troubling. Among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and white non-Hispanic Americans, for example, Hispanic Americans comprise approximately 14 percent of the 15- to 19-year-old population, but they earn only 7 percent of the associate degrees and 6 percent of the bachelor's degrees. African Americans are approximately 16 percent of the 15- to 19-year-old population, but earn only 10 percent of the associate degrees and 9 percent of the bachelor's degrees. White non-Hispanics comprise 70 percent of the 15- to 19-year-old population and earn 83 percent of the associate degrees and 86 percent of the bachelor's degrees. Hispanic Americans and African Americans lose ground at every step of the educational ladder, from high school graduation and college enrollment to earning degrees and certificates. These results are unacceptable. They are contrary to America's fundamental goals and represent a great loss of talent that our nation desperately needs. <br /><br /> <strong><em>The Need for Education Reform. </em></strong>With the recent aggressive efforts in many states, the school reform movement, which began in the 1980s, is finally showing some progress. The current Bush administration and Congressional initiatives will provide additional momentum; however, the task of preparing all young Americans for universal access to postsecondary education is monumental. Even with reform, our secondary schools will not be able to do it all. Currently, only 64 percent of youth earn a standard high school diploma (another 18 percent earn an alternate diploma at an average age of 25) and a significant gap exists between current high school graduation standards and the competencies needed to begin college. Given the projected demographic changes, if there are no improvements in the schools, the 42 percent of young Americans who possess the competencies to begin college work will decrease to 33 percent. <br /><br /> <strong>A Path to Success: Community College Developmental Education</strong> <br /><br /> The evolving educational pattern is a continuum that includes college entry. Four of five Americans will need some postsecondary education and most will return for upgrading, retraining, or personal growth. The majority will enroll in community colleges. Nearly half of all entering community college students have some basic skills deficiency. Community college enrollment will skyrocket and even more students will lack academic preparation. They will depend on community college developmental education as the lifeline to their future. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Results for </em></strong><strong><em>Underprepared </em></strong><strong><em>Students. </em></strong>Although the majority of underprepared students are white non-Hispanics, two-thirds of the seriously academically deficient are minorities; nearly half are 24 years of age or older. The nature of deficiencies is dramatic: one-third are deficient in all basic areas, one-third in two of the three basic areas, and one-third in only one area. Approximately half of the academically deficient students successfully complete remediation. Those who succeed do as well in standard college classes as those who began without deficiencies. One-sixth earn academic associate and baccalaureate degrees and one-third earn occupational associate degrees and certificates. Successfully remediated students become constructive contributors to society. Ten years after beginning developmental courses, 98 percent are employed and 90 percent are in above minimal level jobs. Nearly two-thirds are in new technical and office careers-the areas of greatest growth. They commit less than one-third the number of felonies than other Americans with similar demographics. Half are continuing their education. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Cost of Developmental Education Programs. </em></strong>Contrary to common belief, developmental education programs are cost effective. They serve one million students a year and successfully remediate half that number for an expenditure of only one percent of the national higher education budget and four percent of federal student financial aid. The average academically deficient student enrolls in developmental courses for the equivalent of approximately one-fourth of an academic year. In a community college with an annual FTE cost of $6,000 and student fees at 25 percent of cost, the public cost per student for remediation would be $1,125. Considering the constructive future of successfully remediated students, the cost and benefit are exceptional. <br /><br /> <strong><em>Meeting Student Needs. </em></strong>Developmental programs are frequently given a low priority by both legislatures and colleges and are typically underfunded. As productive as these programs are, they should and can be successful with more students. To succeed, academically deficient students need personal support, which requires more resources than standard college course work. The community colleges that are most successful have integrated programs involving classes, counseling, learning laboratories, and other support services. In addition, they work closely with secondary schools to increase the percentage of entering students who are academically prepared. <br /><br /> Mandatory assessment and mandatory placement are essential. Students must have the appropriate competencies for the classes in which they enroll. Permitting students to enroll in classes for which they are underprepared results in high rates of failure or decreased expectations at the expense of college standards. For this reason, developmental education is essential to achieving college excellence. These services prepare half of our students for academic success and permit colleges to establish and maintain high standards. Dramatically stated, the students who will enroll in developmental education courses are not only half of the students entering college, they are half of America's future high-skill workforce. <br /><br /> <strong>What</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Can</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Community College</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Trustees and Presidents Do?</strong> <br /><br /> Excellent developmental education programs exist only in colleges where a priority is clearly established by the trustees and the president. Trustees and presidents can take several important steps toward ensuring a focus on strong, effective developmental education programs at their institutions: </p> <ul> <li>Gain an understanding of the role of community college developmental and remedial education, including the reasons these programs are needed, the costs and benefits of these programs, and the contributions these programs make to our society. </li> <li>Support developmental education as a priority for the institution. Quality developmental programs exist only where the board and president are clearly supportive in words and deeds. </li> <li>Be sure that your college establishes close working relationships with the K-12 school system, particularly assisting with programs designed to prepare students for college.  </li> <li>Help members of your community understand the function and importance of developmental education programs. </li> <li>Advocate to your legislators for appropriate support and policies. </li> <li>Be well informed and knowledgeable about the college developmental education program. </li> <li>By board policy, state a clear position in support of the developmental education program. </li> </ul> <p>America has no one to waste. Our nation's future depends upon communities recognizing the importance of developmental education and raising it to the priority it needs and deserves. Community college trustees and presidents can begin this process at their own institutions, thereby ensuring that members of their communities have opportunities to thrive in a vibrant economy rather than stagnate in a desolate wasteland.</p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in </em>Leadership Abstracts<em> are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> Partners Unite to Build Petroleum Processing Pilot Plant at Del Mar College urn:uuid:5DA62B67-1422-1766-9A03F7187A7D5629 2015-01-04T07:01:46Z 2015-01-05T06:01:00Z <p><strong>Partners Unite to Build Petroleum Processing Pilot Plant at Del Mar College</strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/showcase.gif" alt="Innovation Showcase" /></p> <p>January 2015, Volume 10, Number 1</p> <p><em>By Michael Bratten</em><br /><br /> An unprecedented public-private partnership is bringing a petroleum processing pilot plant to <a href="http://www.delmar.edu/" target="_blank">Del Mar College</a> that will be used to train technicians for well paying careers in burgeoning industries. Essentially a working model of a distillation unit like those at the petrochemical plants and refineries that dot the landscape near the Port of Corpus Christi, the facility arrives during a perfect economic storm.<br /><br /> “There are multi-million dollar industrial expansions going on here and workers are retiring, so the increase in demand for a skilled workforce is exponential,” said Lenora Keas, Del Mar Vice President of Workforce Development and Strategic Initiatives. “Thirty-eight billion dollars in direct foreign investment is coming into the region due to the low price of natural gas and the stability of the government. This is a boom.”<br /><br /> On Oct. 20, 2014, all the major partners—education, industry and government—gathered at Del Mar’s West Campus to give oversized, gold-painted wrenches a heave in the same direction, symbolically powering up the pilot plant. <br /><br /> “I wish this would ignite other areas in Texas,” said state Rep. Todd Hunter, a guest speaker at the ceremony.<br /><br /> <strong>Hands-On Experience</strong><br /><br /> When it’s installed next spring on the West Campus, the pilot plant will distill glycol from water in the same way gasoline is distilled from crude oil at full-scale facilities. It will be operated by an array of electronic instrumentation indoors—process control systems—that connect to the business-end apparatus outside, including a 32-foot-tall distillation tower. <br /><br /> “With the pilot plant we can give students more hands-on experience versus theory in the classroom,” said Denise Rector, Associate Professor of Process Technology at Del Mar. “They will have to climb and communicate with each other by radio, just like in the industry. It will be very lifelike.”</p> <p>Graduates will still have to go through normal hiring processes when they apply for jobs, but the pilot plant will help make them “road ready” for the workplace, Rector said.<br /><br /> Del Mar received a $1.3 million grant from the Corpus Christi Business and Job Development Corp. to build the pilot plant. Also known as the Type A Board, they help oversee economic development projects for the City of Corpus Christi with funding from a 1/8-cent sales tax.</p> <p>“Because of the boom we’re experiencing, giving kids coming out of school training opportunities that will help them get jobs and stay here in town is something we have to take advantage of,” said homebuilder Bart Braselton, President of the Type A Board. <br /><br /> <strong>Seeking Support</strong><br /><br /> Obtaining buy-in from the Type A Board may have been the easy part for Keas, the driving force behind the project. She also needed support from companies operating refineries and plants locally, such as Flint Hills Resources, CITGO, Valero, DuPont, and Occidental Petroleum Corp., who would be hiring Del Mar’s graduates. <br /><br /> For a year, Keas played the role of pied piper, leading each industry partner to envision reduced costs for on-the-job training and high-quality applicants trained with state-of-the-art equipment. <br /><br /> “It was a hustle,” she said with a smile. “We knocked on doors. We did presentations. The community needs it. Industry needs it. In the end, no one said ‘No.’” <br /><br /> Houston-based Cheniere Energy was an early advocate for a training facility, Keas said. The company, currently planning to build a $12 billion liquefied natural gas plant on the north side of Corpus Christi Bay, chipped in $250,000 for the pilot plant, plus professional support. <br /><br /> “This project offers an opportunity for people to further their skill set in the booming energy industry at a time when the industry needs well-trained technicians and operators,” said Pat Outtrim, Vice President of Government and Regulatory Affairs for Cheniere. “These are good jobs people can support families with.” <br /><br /> When complete, Cheniere’s plant will bring more than 200 permanent jobs to the area, Outtrim added.<br /><br /> <strong>Earning Power</strong><br /><br /> It’s not uncommon for a graduate with a two-year technical degree to earn $57,000 per year, Keas said, and a plant operator with technical experience can earn up to $80,000 or $90,000 per year.<br /><br /> To help students get an early start on these career paths, industry partners like Cheniere have helped develop curriculum for high school courses that count toward associate in applied science degrees at Del Mar. These dual credit courses, currently offered in two area school districts, align with industry needs and also meet Texas Education Agency standards.<br /><br /> For years, Del Mar has worked with industry representatives on an advisory committee to ensure the college’s programs provide graduates the skills they need for employment. The pilot plant is a cherry on top of those efforts.<br /><br /> “We as a college could have developed programs for oil drilling jobs, but we chose to focus on long-term industries such as liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas,” Keas said. “Production will ebb and flow, but the processing jobs don’t go away.”<br /><br /> <strong>Job Incubator</strong><strong> </strong><br /><br /> As the region transforms into a virtual job incubator, Del Mar is seeing an influx of students in its Process and Instrumentation Technology programs. More students enrolled this fall than in the past 20 years, said Hugh Tomlinson, Del Mar professor of Electronics and Communications Service at Del Mar, and he expects the number to continue rising.</p> <p>The search is on for additional qualified instructors, Tomlinson added, but finding people from the industry who are willing to teach isn’t easy.</p> <p> “Every semester I graduate students with a two-year degree who end up making more money than I do with a master’s,” he said. “One guy who graduated in the spring with an associate’s is making $135,000 a year at a local refinery. Some of these companies are paying above average because they want to attract quality employees who will stay with them.”<br /><br /> <em>Michael Bratten is a Communications Specialist at Del Mar College, Corpus Christi, Texas.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Innovation Showcase<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> A Guide to Climate Resiliency & the Community College urn:uuid:5DA8B4A0-1422-1766-9A2D53EE92517BA7 2015-01-04T07:01:46Z 2015-01-05T10:01:00Z <p>Community colleges belong at the heart of the climate resiliency narrative.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>January 2015, Volume 18, Number 1<strong> </strong><br /><br /> Editor’s note: This issue of <em>Learning Abstracts</em> is the Executive Summary from the American Association of Community Colleges publication, <a href="http://theseedcenter.org/ClimateResiliencyGuide" target="_blank"><em>A Guide to Climate Resiliency &amp; the Community College</em></a><em>.</em></p> <p><em>By Sarah White and Todd Cohen</em></p> <p>Resiliency is the word of the hour, a potent but ill-defined term of art in climate and community development circles. At its most fundamental, resiliency indicates a community’s ability to withstand a shock — economic, environmental, social. It encompasses a community’s work to avert, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a disaster. It is invoked, most commonly, in the aftermath of droughts, storms, wildfire, or floods — the kinds of cataclysm that annually cost billions of dollars to the US economy and untold suffering to its citizens. But resiliency is not the sad story of national decline. Nor can it be reduced to tales of episodic heroism in the face of hostile and impersonal forces of nature. It is, rather, a vision of municipalities around the country reinventing themselves as economically and environmentally vibrant centers of community self-reliance. America’s community colleges belong at the heart of this narrative. This <em>Guide </em>aims to put them there.</p> <p><strong>A Missing Link</strong></p> <p>Hundreds, if not thousands, of cities, states, and regions have developed climate adaptation or resiliency plans; few have consulted community colleges in developing them. Most plans call for improvements in education and training, and connection to local economic development, but none of dozens that we reviewed offer a concrete agenda for local workforce development. The major missing piece in these resiliency initiatives? The community college.</p> <p>Community leaders and elected officials, along with planners and scientists and other resiliency principals, should be calling on local colleges to help mobilize the community and train its workers.</p> <p>Public engagement in resiliency will turn on livelihoods, not science. Post-disaster redevelopment efforts aimed at public safety need to think also about economic prosperity, which shores up a community as much as sound bridges and reliable transportation. Jobs matter. As high-level resiliency planning pours millions and even billions (as in the case of post-Sandy efforts) of dollars into local redevelopment, who will ensure that the jobs go to local residents in impacted communities, and who is going to train them to do the work? Resilience requires updating the educational infrastructure to meet the technical demands of rebuilding — and preferably reinventing — the country’s physical infrastructure. This cannot be done without the active participation of its community and technical colleges.</p> <p>Wherever local decision-makers fail to see the importance of skill delivery in building resilient communities, college presidents and trustees should make this case. And every community college needs to pay close attention to emerging opportunities in community resilience planning. Because every college is sitting at the center of a community that is already or soon will be facing challenges from economic and climatic shifts. Each college should be asking itself: How can we add value and voice to the response network, investing in joint initiatives to draw in federal and philanthropic support? How many technical occupations for which we are already educating and training will be impacted by how our region takes shape over the next decade in response to climate change? This <em>Guide </em>points the way to some answers.</p> <p><strong>Into Action: Building Resilience</strong></p> <p>This <em>Guide </em>is designed to help college and community<strong> </strong>leaders establish a framework for dialogue and action<strong> </strong>on local climate resiliency.</p> <p>The Introduction <em>(Chapter 1) </em>links the goals of 21stcentury community college — equity, access, completion — to the emerging national movement to build resilient communities. Here we explore the scope of the challenge, including the sobering economics of extreme weather, and offer a glossary of related but often confusing terms — mitigation, adaption, vulnerability. And we ask:</p> <p>What does it mean, exactly, to build resilience? What are its determinants? The answer lies in many factors, some elusive: Critical intangibles like social cohesion, for example, and concrete imperatives like a functional communications infrastructure.</p> <p>The term climate resilience tends to invoke conversations about infrastructure. We are inundated with images of submerged houses, washed out roads, downed power lines, collapsed bridges. And it’s common knowledge that this country needs to repair its crumbling built environment, disaster or not. So the energy around resiliency puts a welcome focus on infrastructure — not just rebuilding it, but reinventing it through greener transit and power and building; sturdier substations, sewer systems, and cell towers — the new bones of an innovative, adaptive America.</p> <p>Beyond bricks and mortar (or swale and dune), we should also think of resilient infrastructure in terms of more efficient and effective systems for skill delivery, health care, food production, and emergency response.</p> <p>And there are other matters, equally important.</p> <p>Building resilience is something more than building sea walls (projected to be a $9B industry in the next decade) and raising roads. Resiliency relies on <em>social cohesion</em>. At its most basic, this means the ability to rely on one’s neighbors, which of course runs headlong into this country’s potent culture of self-reliance. On a more sophisticated level, however, social cohesion can reflect — and demand — shared power and opportunity, another classic American ideal. Locally, cohesiveness is a function of trust and respect, and is built through informal networks in civil society — congregations, classrooms, neighborhoods, family. Building an individual’s or community’s <em>social</em> <em>capital </em>— measured in part by the extent of their networks — leads to a sense of <em>agency</em>, of power, of some measure of control over decisions that affect their lives and livelihoods. Which is why building resilience requires <em>community</em> <em>engagement</em>.</p> <p>A city or state can enhance its physical resilience to climate change by upgrading material infrastructure and improving management of natural capital. A society becomes resilient through improvements in median income, education, health, and wealth, and equal opportunity to participate in and benefit from the activity that produces them. If opportunity, then, is a primary adaptive strategy, community colleges are clearly positioned to play a leading role.</p> <p><strong>Resources and Opportunities: How Local Colleges Can Engage in a National Dialogue</strong></p> <p>Indeed, while this report is about changing weather, it is not about weathering change. The point is not to bounce back, but — particularly in low-income communities already battered by high unemployment, chronic disease, and environmental decay — to leap forward. So while we write about disaster preparedness, response, and recovery, we are at the same time addressing demands for something larger: vision and leadership and empowerment. Hence the critical role of community colleges — in related curriculum and career pathways, in community leadership and networking, in campus creativity and practice.</p> <p>Institutions and communities around the country are joining together to create local food systems, urban forests, solar gardens; to redefine land use, integrate transit, green infrastructure, and improve community health networks; to reinvent education by building career pathways that move workers of all skill levels into family sustaining jobs while improving the climate resilience of the neighborhoods in which they live.</p> <p>In and around this local activity runs an emergent national dialogue on resilient systems. Inquiry and investment have begun to flow in earnest from federal agencies and local governments, philanthropy and academia, labor, business, and non-profit organizations with concerns ranging from environmental justice to national security. In particular, the past few years have witnessed a wave of serious attention to cities as centers of innovation.</p> <p>This resiliency conversation — and the useful tools it is generating for officials, planners, industries, and activists (including, e.g., adaptation plans, risk assessments, policy recommendations, and engagement strategies) — inevitably, at some point, raises or begs the question of jobs and training. And inevitably stops short of details.</p> <p>Community colleges have the answers. Some are already at the table; more need to be.</p> <p><em>Chapter 2 </em>sets the table, looking at the state and local openings where colleges can enter this conversation, and lifting up opportunities emerging nationally in sectors as diverse as energy, water, housing, hazard mitigation, and healthcare. It also describes, for community leaders in public and private sectors, the critical role of community and technical colleges in building local resilience. The community college model offers a unique combination of practical, applied education and nimble, interdisciplinary, learning. It is here, in this very American institution, that we are most likely to design a new way of working that brings resilience into a community-focused future. And it is here, in a system founded on principles of local empowerment, that we can find an institutional basis for social cohesion. On a more tactical level, community colleges are ideally situated to be community leaders in the resiliency space: they can and do disseminate reliable information on the social and economic impacts of climate change, help communities prioritize their needs in the context of resiliency, and provide critical material support in times of crisis.</p> <p><strong>Leadership, Innovation, and Resilience: A Practical Framework for Transformative Change</strong></p> <p><em>Chapter 3 </em>dives into what all of this means for the individual community college, with particular attention to jobs and economic development.</p> <p>Adaptation to global climate disruption, in the U.S. and around the world, will involve job creation and dissolution, as well as a concomitant shift in skills across the economy. While we don’t know exactly what this looks like, we do know that it demands a cross-sectoral approach — all occupational and educational programs need to determine which elements of work and learning contribute to resiliency — and a holistic one, in which colleges splice resiliency and whole-systems thinking into the very DNA of the institution and its programs of study. It is less a matter of teaching engineers to build green vs. grey infrastructure than of adjusting the entire way that the nation’s problem-solvers are taught to think. It is about creating the educational environment that fosters expansive and imaginative new approaches to solving the infrastructure challenges of tightly interconnected systems. Resiliency will not demand eponymous technicians. It will, however, require technically-trained experts of every sort: front-line workers in health and construction, urban planners and civil engineers, landscape designers and installers, farmers and food system entrepreneurs. Training for a resilient future will be benchmarked in large part by technical diplomas, apprenticeships, and associates and applied bachelor’s degrees. Public services, community health, urban infrastructure, emergency response — these are industry sectors in which a preponderance of workers are trained in community colleges.</p> <p>In addition to considering the necessary response of community colleges to the job and training impacts of resiliency in specific industry sectors, this chapter looks at the role of the college as community leader and campus innovator. It includes a framework for action in each of these spaces. Not simply theoretical, this framework — a practical resiliency agenda — considers jobs, economic development, training partnerships, and evolving programs of study in case studies of five areas: energy efficiency, emergency response, green infrastructure, healthcare, and cross-sector planning for student success. Each tells the same story: college presidents, administrators, and faculty need to assess the relevance of coursework and campus initiatives, and, more importantly, step into their role as community leaders on climate resilience.</p> <p>Finally, in Conclusion, the <em>Guide </em>outlines critical next steps, including:</p> <ul> <li>Resiliency leadership training for community college presidents and trustees</li> <li>A resiliency prioritization and planning rubric for community and technical colleges</li> <li>A framework and action plan to connect community and college resiliency efforts</li> </ul> <p><strong>Towards a Resiliency Agenda for the 21st-Century Community College</strong></p> <p>The initiatives described in this <em>Guide </em>only hint at the rich field of action and possibility for community colleges willing to engage the great work before us: building resiliency. The resiliency conversation, while urgent, is young. This paper intends only to frame the subject, not forge a set of clear and comprehensive answers. Community colleges, we hope, will in fact rewrite the questions. In the meantime, a few lessons emerge, suggesting directions for engagement.</p> <p><em>In Programming</em></p> <ul> <li>Integrate resilient systems-thinking into every program of study, and develop curricula responsive to the particular skill implications of local climate adaptation and mitigation initiatives.</li> <li>Update existing coursework in emergency response, public service, urban planning, engineering, information technology, landscape, water, construction, environment, health, and transportation programs; and seek interdisciplinary opportunities between them.</li> <li>Pay attention to emerging opportunities nationally and regionally (including, e.g., 111(d), ACA, and the Administration’s Climate Action Plan) as policy changes open doors for collaboration, action, and funding.</li> <li>Build <em>climate resilience </em>through education and training: Review local and regional adaptation plans and populate the vague sections on workforce development with an actual agenda for skill delivery.</li> <li>Build <em>community resilience </em>through economic opportunity: Work with local industry partnerships, high schools, and community programs (e.g. pre-apprenticeship, adult literacy, English language learning, and employment readiness) to align education with demand, establish or expand stackable credentials, and build career pathways to actual jobs.</li> <li>Join labor-management partnerships in training incumbent workers for advancement; seize the resiliency dialogue as an opportunity to improve college relationships with labor unions and other worker institutions.</li> <li>Define climate resiliency for your region; work with local government, workforce intermediaries, and industry partnerships to assess emerging labor market demand and skill needs driven by climate resiliency initiatives.</li> <li>Explore new partnerships in customized training for incoming and incumbent city and county workers, particularly in environmental services, engineering, urban planning, transportation, emergency response, and public health.</li> <li>Above all, hew to the college’s core mission, and share it with all community stakeholders: <strong>Post-secondary success leads to economic opportunity, and initiatives to advance it should thus be a keystone strategy in the architecture of community resilience.</strong></li> </ul> <p><em>On Campus</em></p> <ul> <li>Become a living laboratory of resilience; use the campus as a demonstration and teaching asset for engaging students and the community, modeling, for example, stormwater management or renewable energy systems.</li> <li>Fortify and expand sustainability work — both mitigation and adaptation initiatives — already happening across campuses; use existing college sustainability committees to initiate and expand the resiliency conversation.</li> <li>Align college adaptation and hazard mitigation planning, which colleges are already required to do, with local and regional efforts.</li> <li>Establish the campus as a safe haven — whether this is because of high ground, microgrids, or weaponfree zones — and a stable, reliable operations center for times of crisis.</li> <li>Enhance campus awareness and preparedness through education, training, and simulations; develop an all-hazards response plan that engages and supports the different capacities for resilience of individuals on campus: administrators, faculty, staff, and students.</li> <li>Insert resiliency conversations into campus planning on green initiatives; and also work to embed resiliency in institutional strategic planning at every level.</li> <li>Build on the last decade’s advances in sustainability education to prepare students to help their own communities mitigate and adapt to the most severe impacts of climate change.</li> <li>Assess vulnerability and prepare adaptive responses in collaboration with other community colleges around the country: <strong>Join the Alliance for Resilient Campuses </strong><strong><em>(see page 13 [of the report])</em></strong><strong>.</strong></li> </ul> <p><em>With Community</em></p> <ul> <li>Colleges are anchor institutions and community assets that can serve as regional catalysts in the movement to build resilient places. Prepare campuses not only to be an operations base during a disaster, but to serve as an operational base for quotidian community transformation.</li> <li>Use the bully pulpit to explore resiliency — its imperatives and its possibilities — with a broad audience.</li> <li>Provide educational resources on climate change and adaptation to the community at large.</li> <li>Partner with community groups; mediate conversations to ensure that outsiders bearing resilience plans build up and onto local projects and priorities — which may or may not go under the formal title of “resilience.”</li> <li>Broker conversations. Adaptation strategies developed in rooms dominated by scientists and environmentalists tend to seek technical solutions to social problems; community groups will return the resiliency dialogue to community health and economic inclusiveness.</li> <li>Practice local workforce development in new ways — work with cities and transit authorities and regional planning bodies in addition to individual employers.</li> <li>Include all voices. Community activists and environmental justice groups need to share power with economic development and employer interests; colleges have the clout to keep everyone at the big table — where the investment decisions are made — when some seek to busy the more plebeian voices with tangential “community” conversations.</li> <li>Convene scientists, industry and community leaders, and policy-makers to shape climate action plans and determine workforce implications; <strong>Make the college visible as an essential partner in any resiliency planning process. </strong></li> </ul> <p><em>Sarah White is a Senior Associate at the </em><a href="http://www.cows.org/" target="_blank"><em>Center on Wisconsin Strategy</em></a><em> (COWS). Todd Cohen is the Director of American Association of Community College’s </em><a href="http://theseedcenter.org/default.aspx" target="_blank"><em>Sustainability Education and Economic Development</em></a><em> (SEED) Center.</em><br /><br /> <em>Opinions expressed in</em><strong> </strong>Learning Abstracts<strong> </strong><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em><strong> </strong></p> Member Spotlight: Bellevue College urn:uuid:5DA9CC0A-1422-1766-9A7EF120726EE54B 2015-01-04T07:01:46Z 2015-01-05T10:01:00Z <p>Bellevue College’s RISE Institute enhances and expands the college’s undergraduate research program.<strong></strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>Bellevue College: Bringing Research to Undergraduates</strong></p> <p>Not long ago, it was rare for an undergraduate student to become involved in scientific research. These days, however, most graduate school-bound undergraduates do laboratory or field work beyond what's required. Undergraduate research gives students a taste of what a career in science would be like and an edge in applying for graduate schools and jobs. But the edge isn't what it used to be, because many graduate schools and employers have come to expect it.</p> <p>In a move to ensure that <a href="http://www.bellevuecollege.edu/" target="_blank">Bellevue College</a> students are school- and work-ready, campus leaders are working to develop the Bellevue College RISE (Research, Innovation, Service and Experiential Learning) Institute and have named Dr. Gita Bangera as Dean of Undergraduate Research. In this newly created position, Bangera will support campus undergraduate research efforts through grant-funded projects, curriculum development, faculty support, and partnerships with other research labs, industry, and community organizations.  </p> <p>“This position is designed to enhance and further the college’s existing program in undergraduate research, pioneered by Dr. Bangera, including the creation and oversight of a new RISE Institute, which will have a campus-wide approach to infusing research experiences into a wide variety of curriculum,” said Bellevue College President Dr. David Rule. “Our own data, which is strongly supported by information received from local employers and national organizations such as the National Science Foundation, show that this type of hands-on, original research is one of the best ways to significantly improve student success and retention.”</p> <p>Bangera will develop RISE from the ground up—including physical planning, coordinating faculty research projects, coordinating and developing undergraduate research projects, developing curriculum to support undergraduate research classes and programs, and identifying funding and partnership opportunities on both the local and national level. Bangera will also serve as the college's primary liaison with the National Science Foundation.</p> <p>“The idea is to empower students to take control of their educational experience—to understand that learning is so much more than sitting in a lecture and that sometimes your teacher doesn’t know the answer—but that you can find one (or many) together,” Bangera said.  </p> <p>In addition to her new role, Bangera is a prolific genomics researcher and the driving force behind Bellevue College’s current participation in the Community College Genomics Research Initiative (ComGen), which <em>Science</em> magazine identified as one of the pioneering community college research projects in the nation. In this course, students perform original research by sequencing the genome of a bacterium that fights a wheat fungus. They also analyze primary research articles and interact frequently with scientists. Bangera also participates in CURE-NET, a nationwide faculty consortium developing classroom-based undergraduate research experiences. </p> <p>The establishment of RISE on the Bellevue College campus comes as Dr. Rule joined President Obama, the First Lady, and Vice President Biden, along with hundreds of college presidents and other higher education leaders, on Dec. 4, 2014, to announce new actions to help more students prepare for and graduate from college during The White House College Opportunity Day of Action.  <br /> <br /> Through this event, Bellevue College committed to creating more opportunities for students to engage in STEM education and pursue careers in STEM-related fields. </p> <p>In addition to the RISE Institute, Bellevue College is constructing of a state-of-the-art 70,000-square-foot health sciences building, and putting further resources into robust programming in healthcare careers, including three bachelor’s degrees, six associate’s degrees, and numerous certificates.</p> <p>“STEM education is vital to our future—the future of our country, the future of our region, and the future of our children,” Dr. Rule said. “The U.S. Labor Department predicts the 10 fastest growing occupations from 2008-2018 to be STEM-related and with median salaries that will help fuel our economy. At Bellevue College, we’ve taken these trends to heart; we’re actively working to meet these current and future needs and the RISE Institute is one of the main ways in which we plan to do just that!” </p> Member Spotlight: TCC Offers First Textbook-Free Degree urn:uuid:5DB44F6A-1422-1766-9AF4E87A49B88BC2 2015-01-04T07:01:46Z 2015-01-05T06:01:00Z <p>Tidewater Community College is the first accredited U.S. institution to offer an entire degree program with no textbook cost.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><a href="http://www.tcc.edu/" target="_blank">Tidewater Community College</a> (TCC) became the first institution of higher learning to launch its associate of science in business administration as a textbook-free degree program in 2013. Known as the Z-Degree—z for zero textbook cost—the program eases the pain of soaring textbook costs for college students by allowing students to complete the degree and spend no funds on textbooks and course materials.</p> <p>Students in the program use high-quality open textbooks and other open educational resources (OER), which are freely accessible, openly licensed materials specifically designed for teaching, learning, assessment, and research. It is estimated that a TCC student who completes the business degree through the textbook-free initiative saves a student $2,400 on the cost of college.</p> <p>TCC partnered with <a href="http://www.lumenlearning.com/" target="_blank">Lumen Learning,</a> a Portland, Oregon-based company that helps educational institutions integrate OERs into their curricula.</p> <p><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2015-01_MemberSpotlight_Tidewater.png" alt="" hspace="10" vspace="0" width="260" height="212" align="left" />Although many colleges offer OER courses, TCC is the first regionally accredited institution in the United States to offer an entire degree in which students pay nothing for required textbooks. TCC’s textbook-free pilot project launched in the 2013-2014 academic year and continues this academic year.</p> <p>Z-Degree courses have resulted in higher student satisfaction, retention, and achievement of learning outcomes, preliminary data show.</p> <p>“Our use of OER is changing the conversation about student success and learning outcomes as we measure results and identify what are the best resources to teach a particular outcome,” said Daniel DeMarte, TCC’s Vice President for Academic Affairs and Chief Academic Officer. “That is the real power of open educational resources.”</p> <p>TCC’s President, Edna V. Baehre-Kolovani, described the initiative as a significant step toward making higher education more accessible and affordable. “We won’t stop working with our bookstore partner to provide options like used books, rentals, and e-texts, but neither will we stop our bold experiment to improve teaching and learning through free resources.”</p> Win a Scholarship for The New School in New York City urn:uuid:5DB5E00B-1422-1766-9A91672C06E82B81 2015-01-04T07:01:46Z 2015-01-05T06:01:00Z The League for Innovation in the Community College <p align="center"><a href="http://www.finishatthenewschool.com/?utm_source=Scholarship%20Points&amp;utm_medium=listing&amp;utm_campaign=Public%20Engagement%20Competition%202015" target="_blank"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2015-01_BlogPost_Sqore.png" alt="" height="125" /></a></p> <p>For the second year in a row, <strong>The New School</strong> is providing students with a unique opportunity to use their skills and knowledge to <strong>win a scholarship</strong> to complete or resume unfinished studies at The New School for Public Engagement. <br /><br /> <strong>Two scholarships</strong> for the <strong>Bachelor's Program for Adults and Transfer Students</strong> at The New School for Public Engagement will be awarded in total (one full- and one partial-tuition scholarship). </p> <p><strong>Who can enter the competition?</strong><br /><br /> Until April 1, 2015, adult and transfer students interested in continuing undergraduate studies beginning fall 2015 are able to enter The New School for Public Engagement <strong>scholarship competition</strong>.<br /><br /> <strong>Here's how it works:</strong></p> <ol> <li><a href="http://www.finishatthenewschool.com/?utm_source=Scholarship%20Points&amp;utm_medium=listing&amp;utm_campaign=Public%20Engagement%20Competition%202015" target="_blank">Register for the competition</a>.</li> <li>Answer the multiple-choice questions.</li> <li>Submit a video where you "Tell Your Story".</li> <li>Apply to The New School for Public Engagement by April 1, 2015.</li> </ol> <p>Applicants will be judged according to their performance in the quizzes as well as the quality of their video presentations. The winning submission will be awarded a full-tuition scholarship; second prize winner will win a partial-tuition scholarship. <br /><br /> Deadline: April 1, 2015<br /><br /> <a href="http://www.finishatthenewschool.com/" target="_blank">Click here</a> to apply to the scholarship competition now.<br /><br /> <a href="http://sqore.com/" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about Sqore, a League for Innovation Silver Corporate Partner.</p> Innovative Educators Webinar Schedule urn:uuid:626C5677-1422-1766-9AF40708EB9E56F2 2014-12-01T01:12:13Z 2015-01-30T12:01:00Z <p>View the current schedule of upcoming webinars from League partner Innovative Educators.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>February 2015</strong></p> <p>3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3283.htm">Increase Student Retention &amp; Graduation Rates By Instilling A Culture Of Service Excellence</a><br /><br /> 3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3287.htm">Back by Popular Demand!- How To Retain First-Year Students: Helping Them Navigate Emotional, Motivational &amp; Social Challenges</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3281.htm">Managing Overly Involved Parents: Effective Strategies For Deescalating Aggressive Behavior</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3296.htm">Increasing Student Persistence &amp; Success: 5 High-Impact Practices For Immediate Implementation</a><br /><br /> 5 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3282.htm">Managing Disruptive Classroom Behavior: Strategies For Creating A Safe &amp; Dynamic Learning Environment</a><br /><br /> 5 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3307.htm">Higher Education Leadership: How To Develop, Supervise &amp; Evaluate Staff</a><br /><br /> 10 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3303.htm">Supporting &amp; Retaining Single Parent Students In Higher Education</a><br /><br /> 10 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3309.htm">How To Develop &amp; Implement A Summer Bridge Program For First-Generation College Students</a><br /><br /> 11 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3288.htm">Strategies To Motivate Your Students To Read &amp; Prepare Before Class</a><br /><br /> 11 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3321.htm">The New Faculty Majority: Supporting &amp; Honoring Your Part-time Faculty</a><br /><br /> 12 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3291.htm">Teaching Time Management: How To Increase On-Time Graduation Rates, Student Involvement &amp; Academic Achievement</a><br /><br /> 12 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3320.htm">FERPA Compliance &amp; Parent Relations</a><br /><br /> 13 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3305.htm">How To Create An Integrated Website &amp; Service Delivery Strategy</a><br /><br /> 17 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3310.htm">How To Make Online Discussion Assignments Manageable &amp; Meaningful For Students &amp; Faculty</a><br /><br /> 17 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3318.htm">How to Assess and Evaluate Tutoring Programs: A 2-Part Series - Part 1</a><br /><br /> 19 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3328.htm">Intrusive Academic Advising: An Effective Strategy To Increase Student Success</a><br /><br /> 20 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3260.htm">Helping Students Cope With Loss Using Social Media: Risks, Benefits &amp; Ethical Issues - </a>Complimentary Webinar<br /><br /> 24 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3293.htm">How To Achieve Exceptional Front-Line Customer Service In Higher Education - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 24 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3318.htm">How to Assess and Evaluate Tutoring Programs: A 2-Part Series - Part 2</a><br /><br /> 25 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3278.htm">Active Learning: Innovative Strategies That Will Dramatically Improve Student Engagement - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 25 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3284.htm">Teach Students How To Learn: Metacognition Is The Key - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 26 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3306.htm">Addressing Invisible Wounds: Helping Students Manage Trauma &amp; Achieve Success In College - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 26 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3319.htm">FERPA &amp; Email: How To Effectively Communicate With Students &amp; Avoid Liability - Flexible Date</a></p> <p><strong>March 2015</strong></p> <p>3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3312.htm">Strategies For Developing &amp; Maintaining A Robust Student Ambassador Program</a><br /><br /> 3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3311.htm">Online Teaching: Quick &amp; Easy Formative Assessment Strategies That Foster Student Success</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3302.htm">Frontline Customer Service In Higher Education: 10 Key Responses To Diffuse Frustration &amp; Anger - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3313.htm">Enhancing Student Engagement With A Virtual Teaching Assistant &amp; Other Online Tools</a><br /><br /> 5 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3315.htm">Partnering With The Academic Library To Increase Enrollment &amp; Student Success In STEM Education</a><br /><br /> 5 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3324.htm">Strategies for Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome (Autism Spectrum Disorder)</a><br /><br /> 6 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3289.htm">Reflective Practice: Action-Based Skills For Personal &amp; Professional Development - Complimentary Webinar</a><br /><br /> 6 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3337.htm">Enrollment Management For Graduate Programs: Best Practices in Marketing, Recruitment &amp; Retention</a><br /><br /> 10 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3304.htm">Designing An Inclusive &amp; Comprehensive Professional Development Program</a><br /><br /> 10 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3327.htm">FERPA Regulations For The Online Environment: A Toolkit For Faculty &amp; Staff</a><br /><br /> 13 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3323.htm">How To Create A Unique &amp; Memorable Campus Visit Experience</a><br /><br /> 17 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3326.htm">Strategies For Supporting Trans Students: Is Your Campus A Welcoming Place?</a><br /><br /> 20 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3301.htm">Practical Strategies For Facilitating Interaction In The Cross-Cultural Classroom</a></p> The League Partners With Syndio Social and Ithaka S+R to Learn How Social Network Mapping Can Help Higher Education Leaders urn:uuid:06D6388D-1422-1766-9A93B9C697C31247 2014-12-01T10:12:02Z 2014-12-01T04:12:00Z <p>The League, Syndio Social, and Ithaka S+R have partnered to explore what social network analysis can tell us about the adoption of innovative practices in higher education.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/leadership_abstracts.gif" alt="Leadership Abstract" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 27, Number 12</p> <p><em>By </em><em>Rebecca Griffiths</em></p> <p>Social network analysis has been used to predict and influence the spread of behaviors from smoking to weight loss to adoption of new technologies. Researchers have found that personal relationships have a huge impact on how we act, and that people play different roles in social networks: brokers transmit information across groups; sensors control which information permeates a group; and key influencers drive opinions and set agendas. Furthermore, the structure of communities can help us understand where silos exist and which groups are more influential than others in the transfer of knowledge. What can this method tell us about the diffusion of innovative educational practices and adoption of emerging technology in colleges and universities? Can social network maps be used as tools for top administrators to launch new initiatives with more success?</p> <p>The League for Innovation has partnered with <a href="https://syndiosocial.com/" target="_blank">Syndio Social</a>, <a href="http://www.sr.ithaka.org/" target="_blank">Ithaka S+R</a>, and the <a href="http://www.aascu.org/">American Association of State Colleges and Universities</a> to explore these questions, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.* The effort began in February 2014 with a deep look into eight community colleges and eight comprehensives in order to understand their social network characteristics. The partners conducted on-site interviews with senior administrators and then built social network maps of each institution based on survey data from faculty members and staff. The maps are currently helping the institutions’ leaders in several ways. First, leaders are using the maps to identify and empower rising stars and foster connections across groups. Second, the maps highlight communication gaps and organizational silos, and help leaders develop data-driven strategies to close these gaps. Finally, the maps can help leaders understand why some institutions are more successful at innovation than others and help them spread innovations within their institutions. </p> <p>The second phase of the project, launched in October, aims to survey a broader set of top institutional leaders to learn more about the role that influential individuals play in advancing adoption of online learning innovations, such as personalized learning technologies, across higher education. The resulting institutional influencer network will allow community college leaders to understand the higher education universe in a new way — through relationships and channels, not just institutions and segments. Furthermore, it will provide audiences of this work the ability to target information dissemination and facilitate strategic conversations about how higher education can better meet the needs of key constituents, such as low-income, first-generation college students. </p> <p>The first phase of the project revealed some striking findings. In our sample of institutions, attitudes towards the potential for technology to improve education are generally very high, though less so among key groups such as faculty and library staff. In addition, the diffusion of new practices and technologies is impeded by long lines of communication; ideas and information must travel through many steps to reach those who interact directly with students. This leads to noise in the knowledge transfer process and decreases the likelihood that innovations will be adopted successfully. Social network maps may help leaders devise strategies to engage faculty more directly and foster more cross-departmental collaboration. </p> <p>We look forward to sharing findings from the cross-institutional survey with our community.  Please direct questions about the project to <a href="mailto:kate.wulfson@ithaka.org">Kate Wulfson</a> at Ithaka S+R or <a href="mailto:allison@syndiosocial.com">Allison Zuzelo</a> at Syndio Social.</p> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td height="34"><span style="font-family: arial; font-size:9px;">*Syndio Social, a company that grew out of research on social network analysis at Northwestern University, will provide expertise and tools for collecting and analyzing data on social networks. Ithaka S+R, a not-for-profit research and advisory service, helps academic, publishing, and cultural communities make the transition to the digital world.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><em>Rebecca Griffiths</em><em> is the Online Learning Program Director at Ithaka S+R.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Leadership Abstracts<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> NSF’s Community College Innovation Challenge Participants’ Guide urn:uuid:D2E1D5E2-1422-1766-9AA0976B2845501A 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T09:12:00Z <p>The National Science Foundation outlines its Community College Innovation Challenge participant guidelines.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/showcase.gif" alt="Innovation Showcase" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 9, Number 12</p> <p><em>From the National Science Foundation</em></p> <p align="center"><br /> <img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Innovation_NSF_Logo.jpg" alt="http://www.nsf.gov/images/logos/nsf1.jpg" width="96" /></p> <p> <strong>DESCRIPTION</strong><br /> Scientific progress is the hallmark of a dynamic society and the United States leads the world in scientific discoveries. An important aspect of scientific progress is the education of future scientists. Improvements in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula, particularly changes that engage students in the process of research and discovery, have become a focal point for attracting more students into science. Undergraduate research is a significant strategy for improving undergraduate STEM education.</p> <p>Community colleges prepare technicians who will become an integral part of research efforts and students who will continue their educations at four-year institutions. Further, they play a significant role in the preparation of underrepresented groups in science. Community colleges have long recognized the importance of mentoring students and have a history of success in educating underrepresented students for successful careers in STEM. Thus, community colleges play an important role in workforce development in their states and local communities. Industry frequently looks to community colleges to provide an educated and technologically up-to-date workforce. The National Science Foundation’s thrust of incorporating research into the traditional teaching mission of the community college is a relatively new expansion of its mission. This challenge furthers NSF’s mission by enabling students to discover and demonstrate their capacity to use science to make a difference in the world, and to transfer knowledge into action.</p> <table border="0" width="535"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="76"><strong>Who:</strong></td> <td width="535">Teams of three to five community college students, a faculty mentor, and a community or industry partner.</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><strong>What:</strong></td> <td> <p>Teams proposing innovative STEM-based solutions for real-world problems they identify within one of the following themes: </p> <blockquote> <p><strong>Big Data </strong> <br /> <strong>Infrastructure Security</strong><strong>Sustainability (including water, food, energy, environment)</strong><br /> <strong> Broadening Participation in STEM</strong><br /> <strong>Improving STEM Education</strong></p> </blockquote> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>When: </strong></td> <td>Sept. 15, 2014, to Jan. 15, 2015</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Where:</strong></td> <td> <p>The challenge's online platform, www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge, where you can learn more about the challenge, access resources, register and submit your written entry and 90-second video.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Why: </strong></td> <td> <p>To foster the development of crucial innovation skills.<strong></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA</strong></p> <ul> <li>All entries must be received during the competition submission window, from Sept. 15, 2014, to Jan. 15, 2015.</li> <li>Each team must have three to five student members, a faculty member who will function as a mentor to the team and a community/industry partner. If the team is chosen to participate in the Innovation Boot Camp, the mentor must accompany the team to the Boot Camp and the partner will be encouraged to attend. </li> <li>All student team members must be enrolled in a two-year, associate degree-granting institution in the U.S., its territories or its possessions at the time of entry (e.g., the fall 2014 semester or the spring 2015 semester).</li> <li>Student team members must be in good standing with their academic institution.</li> <li>Teams may consist of members from multiple institutions.</li> <li>Student team members are limited to participating in one team project for this challenge.</li> <li>Student and faculty mentor team members must be U.S. citizens, nationals or permanent residents. </li> <li>All team members must be at least 18 years of age by Jan. 15, 2015.</li> <li>A faculty member may serve as a mentor for one or more teams.</li> <li>Faculty mentors will be required to sign a certificate stating that the entry is original and has been independently developed by the student members of the team.</li> </ul> <p><strong>ENTRY GUIDELINES</strong></p> <p>A complete entry consists of two components, a written entry and a video entry, described below. Teams should review the entry form on the online platform for more details about the submission requirements and process.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Written Entry </span><br /> The written entry will be submitted on the challenge platform in the three sections detailed below. Each section has a 1,600-character limit, including spaces.</p> <ul> <li><strong>The Problem. </strong>Clearly and succinctly define the problem of interest. Provide relevant background information and identify the context of the problem (i.e., who is affected, how long has the problem existed). Indicate why it is important that this problem be solved, as well as the impact if the problem were to continue without intervention. </li> <li><strong>The Solution. </strong>Describe your team’s innovative solution. What science and/or technology underlie the solution? What challenges or barriers must be overcome to make the solution a reality? </li> <li><strong>Impacts and Benefits.</strong> Describe how your team would measure the impact and benefits of your solution, if implemented. The benefits for science, industry, society, the economy, national security and/or other applicable areas must be addressed. </li> </ul> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Video Entry </span><br /> The video entry should consist of a single, 90-second video.</p> <ul> <li>The video should be used to clearly articulate the problem, what could happen if the problem is not resolved and your team’s proposed solution. The video entry should have a unified voice, vitality and energy, and should emphasize new methods and insights not provided in the written entry to create a novel presentation while telling a compelling story. A successful entry will be visually striking and will be captured and edited to a high standard. The video entry should also deliver clear and understandable messages using non-technical language. </li> <li>Videos do not have to include credits, but if they do, these will be included in the 90-second time limit.</li> <li>Teams must upload video submissions to YouTube and provide a link to the video on the entry form. Teams advancing to the semifinal round will be required to submit their video file (an MOV file recorded in HD at a minimum resolution of 1280x720) via the online challenge platform to be displayed on the challenge website for public viewing.</li> </ul> <p><strong>THE PROCESS AND PRIZES</strong></p> <ol> <li>All entries will be screened for compliance with the rules.</li> <li>Each entry will be evaluated anonymously based on the stated criteria and will be assigned a numerical score by each judge. Judges will score each of the four criteria on a 5-point scale. The four scores will then be combined for a total possible score of 20 points.</li> <li>Up to 10 highest scoring entries in each of the five themes will become semifinalists (no more than 50 semifinalist teams total). If insufficient entries are received, NSF reserves the right to adjust the ratios of semifinalists. The semifinalists’ videos will be posted on the competition website for public viewing.</li> <li>A separate panel of judges will evaluate all semifinalist entries based on the same judging criteria used in the first round. Up to 10 highest scoring entries will selected for the final round (two per theme, unless insufficient entries are received). All finalist teams will receive feedback from the judges to help them improve their projects for the Innovation Boot Camp. </li> <li>Finalist teams will be invited to attend a three day Innovation Boot Camp, a professional development workshop on innovation and entrepreneurship. The Innovation Boot Camp will provide professional development sessions on a variety of basic entrepreneurial skills relevant to innovation in both the private and public sectors. Sessions will include information applicable to commercializing ideas, using technology for social applications, communicating with stakeholders and creating a business strategy, among other topics. Some details about the Innovation Boot Camp are below – more detailed instructions will be provided to finalist teams: <ul> <li>Student and mentor team members will have all travel, room and board costs associated with attending the Innovation Boot Camp paid on their behalf. Community/industry partners are encouraged to attend the Boot Camp at their own expense.</li> <li>Six weeks before attending the Innovation Boot Camp, finalists will receive detailed instructions on how to prepare for the camp. Mentors of finalist teams will receive $500 to distribute to the team to further develop their idea and to design a presentation for the final round of judging at the Boot Camp. </li> <li>Teams will be encouraged to refine and improve upon their original entry over the course of the Boot Camp.</li> <li>The final round of judging will consist of a five-minute, live presentation before a distinguished panel of judges at the end of the Boot Camp. <ul> <li>Teams will present their solutions and explain how they plan to move forward to accomplish their goals. Presentations should be informative and entertaining. Materials used for the presentation may include videos, computer programs, models, prototypes, graphics, displays, etc. </li> <li>Cash prizes: each student member of the first-place team will receive $3,000, second-place student team members will receive $2,000 each, and third-place student team members will receive $1,000 each.<strong> </strong></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> </ol> <p><strong>JUDGING ROUNDS</strong></p> <p>Preliminary Round: Jan. 29 – Feb. 19<span style="text-decoration: underline;"></span></p> <p>Semifinal Round: March 5 – March 19<span style="text-decoration: underline;"></span></p> <p>Final Round at Innovation Boot Camp: June 15-19, 2015</p> <p><strong>JUDGING CRITERIA</strong></p> <p>Judges will equally weigh the following criteria when scoring the entries:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Innovation and impact.</strong> An assessment of the proposed solution’s use of science to address the problem, potential impact (potential to be transformative) and uniqueness (how the proposed solution differs from existing efforts in its use of novel concepts, methods and/or instrumentation).</li> <li><strong>Scientific accuracy.</strong> An assessment of the application of scientific laws and theory and an evaluation of the methods used to research the topic and test the proposed solution.</li> <li><strong>Feasibility.</strong> An assessment of the likelihood that the solution will work as presented based on relevant economic, political and social issues, etc. Evaluation of the team’s recognition of potential barriers and suggestions for ways in which these barriers may be surmounted.</li> <li><strong>Clarity of communication.</strong> An assessment of the team’s adherence to the entry guidelines (written and video entries), as well as grammar, structure, organization of the facts and data, etc. The entry should have a clear, consistent message.</li> </ol> <p><strong>SUMMARY OF RULES</strong></p> <ul> <li>A contest entry constitutes an agreement to adhere to the rules and stipulations set forth by the contest sponsors.</li> <li>Any entrant or entry found in violation of any rule will be disqualified.</li> <li>Each team entrant certifies, through submission to the contest, that the entry is their own original creative work and does not violate or infringe the creative work of others, as protected under U.S. copyright law or patent law.</li> <li>By entering the contest, the entrants agree to hold harmless, NSF for all legal and administrative claims to include associated expenses that may arise from any claims related to their submission or its use.</li> <li>All judges’ decisions are final and may not be appealed.</li> <li>Entrants retain all copyright and equivalent rights but give NSF nonexclusive rights to use their names, likenesses, quotes, submissions or any part of the submissions for educational publicity and/or promotional purposes. This includes, but is not limited to, website display, print materials and exhibits.</li> <li>NSFwill not be responsible for any claims or complaints from third parties about any disputes of ownership regarding the ideas, solutions, images or video.</li> <li>Winners are responsible for all taxes or other fees connected with the prize received and/or travel paid for by the sponsoring organization.</li> <li>Employees, contractors, officers or judges of the sponsoring organizations are not eligible to enter the competition.</li> <li>If for any reason, including but not limited to an insufficient number of qualified entries is received, NSF reserves the right to modify or cancel the competition at any time during the duration of the competition.</li> <li>Should NSF decide to bring winning contestants to Washington, D.C., or to any other location for promotional and other purposes, expenses paid by NSF will be within the limits set forth in law according to federal travel regulations. </li> <li>All contestants agree that they, their heirs and estates shall hold harmless the United States, the employees of the federal government, and all employees of NSF for any and all injuries and/or claims arising from participation in this contest, to include that which may occur while traveling to or participating in contest activities. </li> <li>NSF has the final say on any point not outlined in the entry rules.</li> </ul> <p>This content for this issue of <em>Innovation Showcase</em> was provided by the National Science Foundation. <a href="http://www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge" target="_blank">Click here</a> for more information about the Community College Innovation Challenge.</p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Innovation Showcase<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> Making the Most of Advising and Planning Technologies: A Tool for Colleges urn:uuid:D2EC7ED5-1422-1766-9A979A3A6C91C0CE 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Community College Research Center researches and assists colleges with the implementation and adoption of integrated planning and advising service technologies.<strong> </strong></p> <p> </p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 17, Number 12<strong> </strong><br /><br /> <em>By Melinda Mechur Karp</em><br /><br /> There is a growing consensus across the country that college students need more support to help them reach their academic and career goals. Integrated Planning and Advising Service technologies (IPAS)—with their capacity to leverage big data and create more coherence and coordination among services—are increasingly viewed by colleges as an efficient means to address this challenge.</p> <p>IPAS technologies enable students to better plan their path through college, and allow faculty and advisors to monitor and reach out to individual students if they go off track. With such capacity, IPAS holds the promise of improving rates of student retention, persistence, and completion. However, <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/research-project/integrated-planning-and-advising-services.html" target="_blank">ongoing research</a> by Community College Research Center (CCRC) into IPAS implementation and use indicates that most colleges have not spent sufficient time envisioning what they hope to achieve with the technology, and how exactly they hope to achieve it.</p> <p>Technology by itself is never a silver bullet: It is merely a tool that can be used to achieve larger aims. In the case of IPAS, this larger aim is a more effective and efficient system of advising. Colleges hoping to benefit from IPAS must, therefore, broaden their focus from mere <em>implementation—</em>getting the technology deployed and available for use—to the more challenging work of <em>adoption—</em>the process of getting people to incorporate the technology into their day-to-day work. Successful adoption requires colleges to develop a shared understanding of their larger reform goal, the role technology will play in achieving that goal, and the structures and work processes that must change to best leverage IPAS in the context of the reform. </p> <p>For example, imagine that a college decides that it needs a more personalized advising system. The college might conclude that an IPAS case management system—which allows faculty and advisors to record and access all student-faculty or student-advisor interactions in a single electronic case file—is the best tool to help them achieve this goal.</p> <p>The next step should be for stakeholders to think through what other changes must occur in order to make the best use of the technology. For instance, the college would henceforth want to assign each student to a specific advisor with whom they meet throughout their time at the college. The advisors would need to change their daily practice so that instead of meeting with a student cold and spending valuable time gathering basic information, they would review the student’s case file prior to the meeting, allowing them to immediately zero in on the student’s particular issues. After the meeting, advisors would record what had transpired for reference at the next meeting.</p> <p>Another college may adopt an IPAS system as part of a guided pathways reform. Thinking through how the technology should be used to further the aims of this larger reform, the college might decide that students changing majors should be required—via an alert and registration freeze—to see an advisor. The advisor could then use IPAS to minimize credit loss, by showing the student which alternate majors would accept most of their classes.</p> <p>This kind of deliberate articulation of how IPAS will be used to help a college achieve larger goals has been rare at the institutions we have studied; instead, the focus has been on the nuts and bolts of getting IPAS systems off the ground. While a focus on the technical aspects of reform is not unusual, colleges need to push themselves to do the harder work of adoption.</p> <p>To aid colleges in these efforts, CCRC has recently released a new <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/evaluating-your-colleges-readiness-for-technology-adoption.html" target="_blank">self assessment tool</a> that colleges can use to gauge their readiness for technology adoption. This tool is based on a <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/adopting-new-technologies-for-student-success.html" target="_blank">readiness framework</a> CCRC released in May, which delineates four areas of readiness to address when investing in IPAS systems: technological, organizational, project, and motivational.</p> <p>CCRC’s self assessment tool is designed to push stakeholders from across the college to talk about what they expect to happen when IPAS is implemented. Such conversations can enable a consensus about the problem being addressed, and the approach to solving it. CCRC research suggests that without a shared vision of benefits, IPAS adoption is unlikely to result in transformational change. College leaders, faculty, and advisors must together articulate what they hope to achieve and how, so that they can work together to bring their goal to fruition.</p> <p><em>Melinda Mechur Karp is the Assistant Director for Staff &amp; Institutional Development at the Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Learning Abstracts<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> Member Spotlight: Chandler-Gilbert Community College urn:uuid:D2F84EA4-1422-1766-9ADFE5B6B890E386 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Chandler-Gilbert Community College’s Coyote Center offers academic, athletic, enrollment, and student services in one location.<strong></strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>CGCC's New Coyote Center Strives to Impact Student Success</strong></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="20" width="377" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="bottom" valign="bottom"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_CGCC_Pic2.png" alt="" hspace="0" width="223" height="133" align="bottom" /></td> <td> </td> <td align="bottom"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_CGCC_Pic1.png" alt="" width="196" height="186" align="bottom" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a href="http://www.cgc.maricopa.edu/Pages/Default.aspx" target="_blank">Chandler-Gilbert Community College</a> (CGCC) recently celebrated the grand opening of the Coyote Center, a new multi-functional facility serving as the front door of CGCC's Pecos Campus. The new 74,859-square-foot center is one of just a few buildings in the nation to innovatively blend academics, athletics, enrollment services, and student affairs into one location.</p> <p>The building was designed around a new model of student service that eliminates inefficiencies, like waiting in multiple lines. By combining most administrative resources under one roof and training staff to handle a broader range of services, students can address things like registration, financial aid, and other enrollment service matters in one location.</p> <p>The innovative Coyote Center design also creates efficiencies by maximizing the utility of each physical space. Many of the spaces can be easily reconfigured to adapt to the ever-changing needs of higher education. For instance, a daytime student waiting area becomes the lobby for an athletics game in the evening. Classrooms transform into a group fitness space or a hospitality suite for an athletics game.</p> <p>“Students and what they need to succeed are at the heart of our design process and the Coyote Center impacts the student experience from the first time they walk in the door,” said Linda Lujan, President of Chandler-Gilbert Community College. “We want to respect students' time and provide them with the most efficient process possible to complete the administrative side of attending college so they can focus on their studies.”</p> <p>Athletics has been greatly impacted with the addition of the Coyote Center on campus, allowing the centralization of all nine athletic teams and their coaching staff to one campus. A new gymnasium, located in the center of the building, is now the largest gathering space for athletic, college, or community events, with bleacher seating for 1,000. This area also includes six new locker rooms, a 4,000-square-foot fitness center featuring state-of-the-art equipment, and a new outdoor turf field. <br /> <br /> "We feel the Coyote Center will be a difference-maker in our pursuit of local student athletes," said Ed Yeager, Athletic Director at CGCC. "Not only will our athletes have access to latest and greatest athletic and fitness equipment, but they will also have access to the new Human Performance Office and Lab which offers a variety of support to student athletes as they pursue their academic and athletic careers at CGCC." </p> <p>The Coyote Center was also designed to meet the needs of the college's ongoing commitment to environmental stewardship and sustainability. The building incorporates many sustainable operations that make it certifiable LEED Gold rating. Examples of sustainable operations include the use of a sophisticated climate and lighting control system, the reuse and retention of rain water, a solar heating system, and the use of LED technology. The facility was completed on time and under budget with the full cost of $28.6 million coming from the public's approval of the 2004 General Obligation Bond Funds.</p> <p>The official grand opening event for the Coyote Center was held on September 24, 2014, and featured more than 150 guests including Maricopa County Community College District speakers, elected officials, the Coyote Center architects, and construction company, college and student representatives.  </p> <p><a href="http://www.cgc.edu/coyotecenter" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about Coyote Center.</p> Member Spotlight: Wake Technical Community College urn:uuid:D2FB2010-1422-1766-9AB435483F5934D5 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Wake Tech’s Associate in Applied Science in Business Analytics prepares students for world-recognized industry certifications.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p align="center"><br /> <img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_WakeTechnical.png" alt="" width="173" height="213" /></p> <p><a href="http://www.waketech.edu/" target="_blank">Wake Technical Community College</a> (Wake Tech) is the largest of the 58 community colleges in the North Carolina Community College System, enrolling more than 70,000 students a year. It is a two-year, public institution with an open door admissions policy, serving the 1,000,000+ residents of Wake County with five campuses, two training centers, and multiple community sites, and online. It is also one of the fastest-growing community colleges in the United States.</p> <p>Wake Tech’s mission is to improve and enrich lives by meeting the lifelong education, training, and workforce development needs of the community. The college’s vision is to exceed the expectations of stakeholders for effective lifelong education, training, and workforce development by providing world-class programs and services. Doubling its student population in the last 10 years, Wake Tech and its faculty are firmly committed to providing innovative education that surpasses traditional community college offerings and prepares students for the demands of today’s workplace.</p> <p>Reflective of its future forward thinking, Wake Tech was awarded a $2.9 million Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant in October 2012 to launch the first and only Associate in Applied Science (AAS) in Business Analytics in the nation. A McKinsey report, <em>Big Data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity</em> (2011), predicted a shortage of talent in data analysis as soon as 2018; shortages of 140,000-190,000 workers and as many as 1.5 million managers and analysts with analytical data skills. The AAS in Business Analytics is designed to bridge this skills gap and provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary for employment and growth in analytical professions.</p> <p>Students may register for the AAS degree as well as for any of six 12-credit certificates in Business Intelligence, Business Analyst, Finance Analytics, Marketing Analytics, Database Analytics, and Logistics Analytics. An accelerated program is also available that allows students to complete a certificate in two semesters, completely online.</p> <p>The Business Analytics program prepares students for world-recognized industry certifications. It has an active advisory board of industry representatives who provide input on the curriculum and its relevance for today’s industry needs. The program focuses on real-world applications of concepts through the use of projects and case studies that rely on actual data; students are also encouraged to bring their own work projects into the classroom. Courses are offered in online, hybrid, and seated formats. Competitive tuition, open-door enrollment, flexible scheduling options, access to industry-recognized tools, and a variety of credential options make enrollment in the program both accessible and affordable.</p> <p>Future plans include the creation of a free Business Analytics MOOC, and a Summer Institute. In addition, the program intends to provide support to nonprofit and charity organizations in need of analytics and data-related assistance.</p> <p>For more information, contact <a href="mailto:wmartin@waketech.edu">Walter Martin</a>, Dean of Business and Public Services Technologies, or <a href="mailto:tescott1@waketech.edu">Tanya Scott</a>, Director of the Business Analytics Department.</p> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td><span style="font-family: arial; font-size:9px;"> <p>References</p> <p>McKinsey Global Institute. (2011). Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation" target="_blank">http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation</a></p> </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Assessing Affective Factors to Improve Retention and Completion urn:uuid:5C7D6593-1422-1766-9AF82872EC5CBA00 2014-11-01T08:11:13Z 2014-11-03T08:11:00Z <p>New affective domain research is changing the conversation about key skills and behaviors in higher education.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>November 2014, Volume 17, Number 11</p> <p>Editor's Note: The League is pleased to present this expanded issue of <em>Learning Abstracts</em>. <a href="/publication/leagueconnections/2014_11_Learning Abstracts_AssessingAffectiveFactors.pdf" target="_blank">Click here</a> to download a print-friendly version.</p> <p><em style="line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;line-height:200%;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">By </span></em><em style="line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size:10.0pt; line-height:200%;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ross Markle and Terry O'Banion</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Bloom's Taxonomy may be the most recognized framework in all of education. Categorizing learning objectives into cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains appeared to be common sense at the time the construct was created, and the domains both thrived and evolved over decades with many applications and revisions.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Benjamin Bloom and four of his colleagues met over a period of years during the late 1940s and early 1950s as a group of educational psychologists seeking to create a framework of learning objectives as a basis for designing curricula, tests, and research. In 1956, they published </span><em style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Taxonomy of Educational Objectives – The Classification of Educational Goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain</em><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">, which became one of the most significant books ever published in education. In 1973, several other psychologists, including Bloom, also published a book on the affective domain, though an effort explicating the psychomotor domain was never published. Their work initially focused on the cognitive domain, perhaps because many at the time believed it too difficult to define, let alone assess, the affective domain (Martin &amp; Reigeluth, 1992). Over the next several decades, most educators would also focus here, as the cognitive domain served as the foundation for most of traditional education. In Bloom's Taxonomy, the cognitive domain reflects knowledge, the psychomotor domain reflects skills, and the affective domain reflects attitudes.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Although educators and researchers recognize the value and importance of the affective domain to student success (e.g., Furst, 1981; Griffith Nguyen, 2006; Martin &amp; Reigeluth, 1992), it is the least applied and least understood of the taxonomy trilogy. Knowledge and skills are easier to understand and apply in the educational process; the affective domain reflects the world of feelings, values, appreciation, motivation, and attitudes—factors much more difficult to understand and assess.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The Affective Domain</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Both implicitly and explicitly, there have been some grand experiments designed to emphasize the affective domain. Traditionally, residential education, student clubs and associations, dons and mentors, and counseling and student services have been the primary programmatic attempts to help students improve their interactions with others, to explore values and prejudices, and to increase self-understanding and self-esteem. For example, the Learning and Development Outcomes developed by the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (Strayhorn, 2006) have served as the primary framework for student affairs and co-curricular programs and services—including housing and residence life, advising, and counseling services—for nearly a decade, and focus heavily on "intrapersonal development," "interpersonal competence," and "humanitarianism and civic engagement," among other areas.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There have also been some philosophical and psychological movements that have attempted to embed the affective domain into the educational enterprise. These include Progressive Education (Hayes, 2006; Reese, 2001), the Humanistic Education Movement Weinstein &amp; Fantini; 1970), and theories of self-concept and self-esteem (Burns, 1982; Lawrence, 2006).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">But no matter the quality and number of champions of the affective domain—John Dewey, Carl Rogers, Arthur Combs, and Abraham Maslow decades ago, and current leading researchers and educators such as Angela Duckworth, Carol Dweck, Patrick Kyllonen, Martin Seligman, and Roger Steinberg—the affective domain has remained the stepchild of the taxonomic trilogy when it comes to funded research, practice, and programs. However, new research, which often refers to the affective domain with terms such as noncognitive factors, psychosocial skills, or soft skills, is changing the conversation about key skills and behaviors in higher education.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Slowly Taking Hold</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">With the emergence of the Completion and Student Success Agendas (e.g., Hellyer, 2012; Hughes, 2012; Humphreys, 2012; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Mullin, 2010</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">) informing the overarching mission of higher education, the affective domain may find a more welcoming climate in the halls of academe. The community college may become the ideal incubator for demonstrating the significant role the affective domain can play to expand and improve student learning and increase retention and completion. Community colleges have been assigned the toughest tasks in all of higher education, and their leaders and their faculties have experimented for decades with traditional models of education. They are now turning to less traditional models and welcome the opportunity to innovate and explore new ideas, new structures, and new incentives—many based on practices and programs that incorporate the affective domain.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There is now general agreement among educational leaders and researchers that assessing students more effectively on affective dimensions, along with assessments of academic knowledge and incorporating past indicators of success such as high school GPA, is a promising direction for community colleges and other educational institutions committed to increasing retention and completion rates.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A shift toward the affective domain began in the early 1990s, when then United States Secretary of Labor, Lynn Martin, appointed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. The Commission then released </span><em style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">What Work Requires of Schools</em><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"> (SCANS, 1991), which described the cultural, industrial, and sociological changes that required students to learn a different set of skills, particularly to be effective in the workplace. Not only did this involve a shift in the cognitive domain, emphasizing factors such as information literacy and the effective use of technology, but it also emphasized the soft skills reflective of the affective domain, including factors such as interpersonal skills and personal qualities (e.g., responsibility, self-esteem).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Since the publication of that report, many similar efforts, including those led by groups such as the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2004), the National Research Council (2008, 2009, 2011, 2012), and the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (see Elias, 1997), have also sought to promote the inclusion of the affective domain, using various nomenclature, frameworks, and theoretical models, into models of student learning and educational practice. Specifically in higher education, frameworks over the past decade have expanded the domain of learning to almost seamlessly include cognitive and affective domains in defining what students should know and be able to do after completing college (e.g., Adelman, Ewell, Gaston, &amp; Schneider, 2011; Association of American Colleges and Universities., 2007; Markle, Brenneman, Jackson, Burrus, &amp; Robbins, 2013; Strayhorn, 2006). For example, while communication skills might include the ability to read, write, and speak effectively (traditionally cognitive skills), many modern definitions of effective communication also include interpersonal components—the ability to read and interpret one's audience, tailor a message effectively, or persuade others—that might be considered affective (or noncognitive). In this way, communication is neither a cognitive nor affective skill, but a combination of both.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">In addition to changing the outputs of higher education, affective factors have also been added to the list of key inputs, or predictors of success, in higher education. Several large, meta-analytic studies over the past decade have shown the importance of these domains (Poropat, 2009; Richardson, Abraham, &amp; Bond, 2012;</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;"> </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, Langley, &amp; Carlstrom, 2004; Robbins, Oh, Le, &amp; Button, 2009). These studies have rather conclusively demonstrated three important points about affective factors and student success. First, affective factors significantly predict student success. Second, this predictive validity is significant, even when controlling for variables such as standardized test scores, high school GPA, and socioeconomic status. Third, the relative importance of affective variables, vis-á-vis academic achievement, may be even greater when referring to persistence outcomes. That is, while test scores and high school GPA are strong predictors of college GPA, they have been shown to be weaker predictors of retention than noncognitive skills (see Robbins et al., 2004).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In addition to demonstrating their ability to predict success, research has demonstrated two other points about the malleability of affective areas that make them pertinent to the student success conversation. It was a long held tenet of psychology that personality traits (another moniker for the affective domain) are stable once established in adulthood. If this were true, and personality fixed and unchangeable, then using affective variables to indicate success would be less relevant for suggesting interventions. For example, demographic variables such as race/ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status have been consistently shown to be correlated with success. Yet these factors are not only immutable, but also provide no information about how to mediate risk for traditionally underserved groups (Eaton &amp; Bean, 1995). </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">However, a meta-analysis by Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006) showed that personality does indeed fluctuate significantly over one's lifetime. Moreover, Yeager and Walton (2011) reviewed several studies that showed effective psychosocial interventions that not only improved skills and behaviors, but had long-term impacts on student success. Effective interventions generally shared three characteristics. First, they had a firm basis in social psychological theory, meaning that they identified and addressed the underlying phenomenon (e.g., self-efficacy) that drives student success. Second, they were engaging activities, rather than instructional lectures. Third, these interventions were stealthy in nature, such that students were not directly instructed that the intervention was targeting psychosocial factors.</span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, the studies by Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbaur (2006),Yeager and Walton (2011), and others demonstrate perhaps the most important aspect of the affective domain: Not only do these factors impact success, but they are also malleable and can be changed. Unlike other factors that are fixed—either by their inherent nature or the sheer mass of intervention required to do so (e.g., socioeconomic status) —the affective domain directly impacts success <em>and</em> allows interventions that can make changes in student behavior. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Defining and Structuring the Affective Domain</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Recently, several popular efforts have emerged to apply various dimensions of the affective domain, though under different names. These include "grit" (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, &amp; Kelly, 2007), "character" (Tough, 2013), and "hope" (Snyder, 2000), and are characterized by focusing on a common trait that determines student success above and beyond traditional indicators of achievement. Although these studies add to the extant body of literature which has already thoroughly demonstrated the importance of psychosocial skills, they do present some challenges to the larger inclusion of the affective domain into higher education.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In some cases, they cloud the picture of the affective domain by adding relatively synonymous terms to its already vast construct space. For example, Duckworth et al. (2007) espoused the importance of grit, but at the same time found it to be highly correlated with the personality domain of conscientiousness. This convergence should not come as a surprise, given grit's definition ("perseverance and passion for long-term goals"), nor should its predictive value, given the findings of Poropat (2009) and Robbins et al. (2004; 2009), which demonstrated the importance of conscientiousness and its various facets.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Ironically, some of these efforts also oversimplify the role of affective factors. For example, in describing "hope," Lopez (2009) provided the following definition:</span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:0in;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt"><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Hopeful students see the future as better than the present, and believe they have the power to make it so. These students are energetic and full of life. They are able to develop many strategies to reach goals and plan contingencies in the event that they are faced with problems along the way. As such, obstacles are viewed as challenges to overcome and are bypassed by garnering support and/or implementing alternative pathways. Perceiving the likelihood of good outcomes, these students focus on success and, therefore, experience greater positive affect and less distress. Generally, high-hope people experience less anxiety and less stress specific to test-taking situations. (p. 1)<span style="color:red"></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">This definition of a seemingly singular trait—hope—contains references to several domains of personality. Yet a meta-analysis by van der Linden, te Nijenhius, and Bakker (2010), found that the highest observed correlation between any two personality factors was .32, suggesting large amounts of unique variance among these areas. Meta-analyses in academic settings (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004) have produced similar findings. As such, representing these concepts under the auspices of one term misrepresents their granularity and nuance. In order to develop an effective understanding of the affective domain and, more importantly, effective strategies to intervene with students, we must acknowledge that the affective domain is as diverse and complex as the cognitive one.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There have been a number of efforts to frame this complexity. For one, some (e.g., Poropat, 2009) have applied the "big five" personality factors (Goldberg, 1990). This widely used model describes human characteristics and behavior in five broad categories: extraversion (talkative, sociable, outgoing), agreeableness (tolerant, courteous, trustworthy), conscientiousness (industrious, reliable, orderly), emotional stability (self-reliant, calm, confident), and openness to experience (perceptive, artistic, curious). From a theory perspective, this is a sound approach given the resounding support for the big-five in personality literature. Kyllonen (2013) argued that it was this framework's successful articulation of the personality space that facilitated the shift in understanding the importance of the affective domain. However, though the big-five model is popular among researchers in psychology, it is rarely used in educational practice to articulate the skills of incoming students.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A host of frameworks, usually tied to existing assessments, present academically contextualized skills, behaviors, and attitudes relevant to student success. In many cases, these models present general skill areas, each with more granular subskills. These include the recent work done with ETS' SuccessNavigator assessment (Markle, Olivera-Aguilar, Jackson, Noeth, &amp; Robbins, 2013) and ACT's Engage College Domains and Scales Overview(2013). Generally, the broader domains in these models are tied to those areas of the big-five personality theory that have been shown to most effectively relate to student success, including some combination of academic behaviors (e.g., study skills), motivation or commitment, self-regulation (e.g., emotional stability), and social connection.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">The models presented by ETS and ACT represent only two of a litany of affective frameworks in higher education. These efforts that focus on student success add to those aforementioned frameworks that outline affective student learning outcomes. Indeed, one of the challenges in this area has been the lack of a clear theory or structure that might help educators better understand and discuss these affective skills, especially given their novelty in the academic landscape.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Touch Points for Student Success</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Studying these affective factors has not only helped us better understand what affects success, but it has changed the way we view success itself. For decades of postsecondary research, the outcome of interest was primarily grade point average, though studies have increasingly focused on persistence and completion over the last several decades. Certainly, these two phenomena are inextricably linked, but research has shown differences in the factors that underlie each (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004; Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In addition, there recently has been a large amount of attention paid to the early course placement and developmental education sequence, particularly in the community college sector. Interestingly, this attention has arisen from research, practice, and policy sectors, with each identifying low rates of success for those students who are placed into developmental courses (Bailey, Jeong, &amp; Cho, 2008; Scott-Clayton, 2012). Obviously, course placement is just one point along the continuum of student success, but recent studies have suggested that it is a critically important point.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In the next sections, we discuss these three phenomena—course placement, academic success (i.e., grades), and persistence behavior—including the research into each area, relevant noncognitive factors, and effective practices to improve each outcome.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Course Placement and Developmental Education</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Recent studies have cited both the abysmal rates of success in developmental education and the need to consider revolutionary changes to the way we place students into early college courses and address deficits in academic achievement (e.g., Bailey, Jeong, &amp; Cho, 2010; Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012). It is almost certain that the most effective means of improving developmental education will involve a combination of efforts, but some of the suggested steps include increasing support for students placed into developmental courses (e.g., Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012); redesigning the structure of developmental courses (e.g., Edgecomb, 2011; Twigg, 2011); increasing the alignment between secondary curricula, placement tests, and college curricula (e.g., Brown &amp; Niemi, 2007; Brudman, 2012; Conley, 2008); and improving methods of placement testing (Boylan, 2009; Burdman, 2012; Collins, 2008; Conley, 2007; </span><span style="background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Levine-Brown, Bonham, Saxon, &amp; Boylan, 2008); Saxon, Levine-Brown, &amp; Boylan, 2008).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Among all these possible solutions to the developmental education issue, holistic assessment, acceleration, and course redesign have likely received the most attention in terms of research, practice, and policy. In addition, these areas are also where affective factors have the most relevance.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Innovations in developmental education.</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> Given that the assessment of student readiness and likelihood for success is the first step in the process, considering revisions here is a logical place to start. Currently, </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">there are two traditional standardized placement tests that are used to make the vast majority of placement decisions: the ACCUPLACER<sup>®</sup>, developed by the College Board, is used at 62 percent of community colleges, and the COMPASS<sup>®</sup>, developed by ACT, Inc., is used at 46 percent (Primary Research Group, 2008). At most institutions, these assessments are the sole determinants of student placement.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Some (e.g., Burdman, 2012) question the validity of existing placement tests. </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Others have noted </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">(e.g., Conley, 2007) that academic achievement is only one of the many skills that indicate a student's likelihood of success in early college courses. Indeed, as the aforementioned meta-analyses have shown, many factors contribute to students' academic success. Thus, in attempting to determine where students should be placed in order to maximize their success, traditional placement tests might best be described as <em>insufficient</em>, rather than <em>invalid</em>, indicators. Accordingly, many states, including Florida, have recently passed legislation either limiting the use of placement tests (see Fain, 2013) or requiring multiple measures to be considered in placement decisions (e.g., California Student Success Task Force, 2012).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A second innovation is the redesign of developmental courses and curricula. Under traditional placement models, some students are required to take as many as four semesters of remedial courses before entering college-level (i.e., credit-bearing) coursework. Given this long and arduous path to a degree, some have argued the merits of shortening the sequence through course acceleration—placing students into higher level courses whenever possible—accompanied by co-curricular supports (Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Others have proposed various means of curricular restructuring and redesign for early math and English courses. Here, we refer to curricular restructuring as those efforts that use traditional pedagogical methods but not the traditional course structure (i.e., three credit hours, fifteen weeks). One example is the co-requisite model, in which students with deficiencies in academic achievement are entered into college-level courses, but are also required to take an additional section that allows for supplementary instruction time. Initial research has shown these efforts to be quite effective with regard to course completion and long-term success in both math and writing (<span style="background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Adams, Gerhart, Miller, &amp; Roberts, 2009; </span>Bragg, 2009; </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT">Brancard, Baker, &amp; Jensen, 2006</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">We also refer to curricular redesign efforts as those that apply innovative pedagogical models, occurring either within or outside of the traditional course structure. Perhaps the most prominent example is the emporium model for math courses, developed at Virginia Tech. Here, students use a computer-based, self-paced model of learning rather than a traditional lecture setting. Twigg (2011) listed four reasons why the model has seen success:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students spend the bulk of their course time doing math problems rather than listening to someone talk about doing them" (p. 26).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students spend more time on things they don't understand and less time on things they have already mastered" (p. 26).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students get assistance when they encounter problems" (p. 27).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students are required to do math" (as opposed to not participating in class; p. 27).</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"></span><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">How can the assessment of affective factors be used to improve developmental education? </span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The most likely way in which the assessment of affective factors can improve developmental education is by better understanding students' likelihood for success. Efforts to broaden the measures used to assess students' readiness or likely success have taken several forms. In some cases, such as a multi-dimensional college readiness index proposed by the College Board (Wiley, Wyatt, &amp; Camera, 2010), this simply means the inclusion of additional indicators of academic achievement, such as high school grade point average or class rank. In other cases, sometimes referred to as holistic assessment, measures of affective factors as well as academic achievement are considered. Many have called for this holistic approach to be used in placing students into courses, (Boylan, 2009; Burdman, 2012; Conley, 2007; Levine-Brown, Bonham, Saxon, &amp; Boylan, 2008). Moreover, research has shown that noncognitive factors add significantly to the prediction of early course success and can be used to inform decisions about course acceleration (Markle et al., 2013). </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In practice, affective factors have two points of relevance to improving developmental education. On one hand, they can be used to inform course placement decisions. In a traditional developmental sequence, institutions might want to select the best candidates for course acceleration into a higher course by identifying those students who are highly motivated, have strong organizational skills, and are willing to reach out for help when they encounter a problem. If an institution has several models of course delivery, affective factors could be used to identify which one best fits a student's individual strengths, though more research is needed in this area.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">The second point of relevance involves post-placement support. As mentioned, there has been increased focus on the need to provide co-curricular support for students after placement, regardless of their position in the developmental sequence (Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012). Using an assessment of affective factors, institutions can identify which supports are necessary for each individual student. In some cases, these assessments can directly refer students to institutional resources or even provide their own tools and strategies (e.g., Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Additionally, affective factors might identify how faculty can engage with students in the classroom, particularly in redesigned courses and curricula. Consider the math emporium model. Students work independently and at their own pace, while the role of faculty shifts to one of support, particularly when a student encounters difficulty. Using affective assessment, faculty members might understand their students' tendency to seek help and more proactively engage with those who do so less often. There is limited, if any, extant research on the role of affective factors in these redesigned courses, both in terms of predicting success and understanding the learning process, though this should be an area of future exploration.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Early Academic Success</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Looking beyond just entry-level math and English courses, the grades that students earn early in their college career, represented by either first-semester or first-year GPA, are the most widely studied indicator of academic success in educational research. Grades are important to consider for two reasons. First, we want to ensure that students are actually acquiring the knowledge and skills that are conveyed by a college degree or certificate. Even though grades are often criticized for their lack of reliability and multidimensional nature (e.g., Allen, 2005; Brookhart, 1993; Burke, 2006), they are by far the most prevalent indicator of learning available. Second, grades play an important part in understanding persistence behavior. Directly speaking, students cannot progress toward a degree without successfully completing courses with passing grades. Grades have also been shown to mediate the effect of other factors, such as motivation, academic achievement, and family income on degree attainment (Allen &amp; Robbins, 2010).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A host of studies have examined which factors, among the wide array of academic and psychosocial variables, are most relevant to academic success. Poropat (2009) conducted a meta-analysis looking at the ability of the big-five personality dimensions and intelligence to predict academic performance. Of these possible predictors, he found only conscientiousness and intelligence to be significant predictors of academic performance in college, interestingly with roughly equal predictive strength. Richardson, Abraham, and Bond (2012) also used a meta-analytic approach, looking at a much wider array of personality, affective, and psychological factors in predicting academic performance in college. They, too, found indicators of intelligence or academic achievement to be relevant, along with a host of other factors including conscientiousness, academic self-efficacy, performance self-efficacy, effort regulation, time/study management, test anxiety (negatively related), and a strategic approach to learning. Finally, another meta-analysis by Robbins et al. (2004) found achievement motivation and academic self-efficacy, as well as academic achievement, to be significant predictors of GPA.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Overall, these studies find that the most relevant predictors of GPA tend to be academic achievement and factors related to conscientiousness—organization behaviors, motivation, and adaptive learning strategies. These findings are likely not surprising. What might be interesting, however, is the lack of other factors appearing on this list. Many of the social (e.g., institutional commitment) and self-regulatory (e.g., stress management) factors that are well known to many educators are absent.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There are at least two hypotheses to explain this absence of findings. One is the global nature of meta-analytic research. These studies attempt to generate one relationship across multiple studies and thousands of students. It is quite possible that these social and emotional factors are relevant, but only for a subset of students. Little research has examined the possibility of profiles that might suggest multiple paths to success (e.g., Markle &amp; Steinberg, 2013), and although approaches hold promise for understanding different sets of skills within the student population, these methods have not been widely applied.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A second explanation is the potential mediation of conscientiousness-related factors. Consider students who face significant challenges with regard to social connections or emotional regulation. For these students, if they do not overcome these hurdles, then succeeding in class will certainly be difficult. However, if they overcome these challenges and still do not effectively organize their time, complete assignments, and persist to complete their academic goals, academic success will still evade them. Thus, it could be said that these factors outside of the immediate academic experience are necessary, but not sufficient for success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, the question still remains about how these factors can not only be understood, but also used in order to improve student success. Here, the approach is similar to that in addressing developmental education. The first step is to consider affective factors in predicting student success. Several noncognitive assessments that are currently available provide composite indices that predict college grades and can be used to identify students with low probabilities of success. In this way, institutions can more intrusively engage with these students and provide them assistance before they encounter hurdles. The second step in this process is to then connect students with the appropriate co-curricular supports. Once again, several of the existing assessments can connect students with on-campus resources or provide embedded materials that focus on noncognitive skills.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Persistence Behavior</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">As institutions have increasingly shifted their focus to persistence and completion, researchers and practitioners alike have sought a better understanding of what drives student success. For many four-year institutions, increasing retention and graduation rates has simply meant attracting "better" students: those with higher standardized test scores, high school grades, or other indicators of academic achievement. However, this is a limited strategy for several reasons.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">For one, this simply isn't an option for most institutions. Community colleges and other open enrollment institutions do not have the same liberty with admissions criteria as other schools. What's more, community colleges in particular are driven to provide access and education to a wide array of students, regardless of academic achievement. For all these reasons, simply "having better students" is not a practical option.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Interestingly, admitting only highly qualified students<span style="color:red"> </span>may also be the wrong approach. In 2004, Steven Robbins and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis using a large collection of studies that included students from both two-year and four-year institutions. They considered an array of predictors, including standardized test scores, high school GPA, and noncognitive factors, and their relation to both grades and retention through the first year of college. In predicting grades, standardized test scores contributed the most to the model, with factors such as academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation also contributing to the model. However, when predicting retention, standardized test scores had the lowest predictive value of any variable in the model, with noncognitive factors such as academic goals, institutional commitment, social support, and social involvement contributing significantly to<span style="color:red"> </span>the model. In this case, traditional notions of academic achievement were strong predictors of academic success, but noncognitive factors were stronger predictors of persistence.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">This is not to suggest that academic achievement is unimportant. A study by Porchea, Allen, Robbins, and Phelps (2010) tracked a large, multi-institutional group of community college students over five years. The authors were able to follow students over this time even as they transferred to other institutions. Not surprisingly, they found a host of predictors, including academic achievement, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, and institutional characteristics, to be significant predictors of degree attainment.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, determining the relative importance of academic and noncognitive factors is perhaps a moot exercise. From a practical perspective, it is critical to understand that both academic achievement and affective factors play important roles in student learning and persistence. Indeed, there are many paths to success, and accordingly, many combinations of skills that might allow a student to persist to a degree. Once again, determining profiles of student skills might be helpful for both understanding risk and identifying interventions, but research is still required to obtain a more granular and nuanced understanding of these different sets of skills and how they are related to success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Key Developments in Assessing Affective Factors</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">While educators have always recognized the importance of noncognitive factors in the success of students, they have not always known how to create programs and practices to integrate these factors with what they know about the cognitive domain. In some cases, where they have embraced and experimented with programs and practices reflecting the affective domain, they have not been supported by leaders, policies, and resources. There was a great deal of enthusiasm in the 1960s and 1970s for T-Groups and Encounter Groups, meditation, and Personal Development Courses that directly addressed the noncognitive dimensions of human nature, but today there are only remnants of these creative approaches remaining in curricula.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">However, with new research, new assessments, and new commitments to increasing retention and completion rates, there is a resurgence of interest among leading practitioners and college leaders in how we can improve and expand the learning of students by applying what we know about the noncognitive domain. In the following section we describe briefly three efforts to implement various programs and practices based on noncognitive factors.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Revamping developmental education. </span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Chaffey College in California has been experimenting for several years with assessing noncognitive factors and improving course placement and student success. Laura Hope and her colleagues at Chaffey have been working with Gallup Education Practice to experiment with Gallup's Hope Scale to determine its value for improving assessment and course placement. The Hope Scale is a key part of the assessment process and is an extension of the Basic Skills Transformation at Chaffey which placed a tremendous value on the students' capacity to construct learning, especially if they were motivated.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In 2011, Chaffey began collecting data using the Hope Scale and, to date, has assessed approximately 10,000 students, becoming Gallup's laboratory for collecting data on hope on community college students. In 2013, the college also added a Mindset Scale, derived from Carol Dweck's work, to the assessment battery, assessing roughly 3,000 students. As part of the Basic Skills Transformation, the English curriculum was entirely overhauled from eleven courses in English and reading to three courses. Now that the new curricula are in place, the college is validating potential uses of the Hope Scale so that it can be added as one of the background measures for placement. Mindset will likely be added as a background metric as well, placing students in higher-level courses if their assessments indicate high hope and a growth mindset.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">"It is our hypothesis that behavior is not only an extension of hope and mindset, but, more importantly, if we can help students behave in ways that are consistent with a high hope/growth mindset, we can help to influence their hope and mindset. So rather than just focusing on influencing the cognitive, behavioral reinforcement can influence the cognitive factors that generate hope/mindset behavior" (Hope, 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Chaffey College staff are currently working on how to make these data actionable for placement and other purposes. The college will explore how to improve the placement process to ensure greater success in courses, as well as how to expand and improve students' noncognitive factors as related factors in overall success. College leaders also plan to disaggregate the data by demographics to determine how these affective factors function within unique populations as one avenue for improving the college's equity agenda.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">An institutionwide plan for student success.</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> Miami Dade College, as part of its Completion by Design initiative with the Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, is creating a comprehensive, holistic initiative to improve retention and completion rates for one of the largest and most diverse colleges in the U. S. In early phases of the initiative, the Student Support System will be re-engineered to include:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Structured pre-admissions processes, including deadlines, structured information systems, test preparation, and early engagement;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Holistic assessment of academic skill gaps, including noncognitive and career interest assessments;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Strategic, mandatory orientation, including ongoing and study-focused orientations;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Intrusive and mandatory advisement based on collaboration between student services and faculty;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Completion of each student's academic plan, including course selection and appropriate course sequences.</span></li> </ul> <p> <span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;"></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The college is experimenting with two assessments of affective behavior as a key foundation to support this student success initiative.</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> As part of the restructured intake process, students are required to complete a noncognitive assessment battery prior to attending their respective campus orientation. Students are also required to meet with their assigned advisor during their first term to review their noncognitive assessment results, discuss career options, and complete their student success pathway. Campus advisement teams have developed cross-walks matching various noncognitive factors with services at the specific campuses.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">The college is also beginning to experiment with assessments to identify students who are at-risk, provide resources to students based on needs, and use data to guide programming and outreach to promote student success. Although the college is still in early stages of development and implementation, some promising results are beginning to emerge. For example, over 1,300 students enrolled in test preparation courses in reading, writing, and math. Diagnostic assessments were offered to the test prep participants followed by modularized instruction based on students' performance. Of the students participating in the program, over 50 percent advanced their course placement by at least one level.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">An emerging model: SuccessNavigator</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">. Recent research at Educational Testing Service (ETS) has produced a new assessment that allows for efforts like those at Chaffey and Miami Dade and at other institutions. The new tool, SuccessNavigator<sup>TM</sup>, provides scores in four broad areas: academic skills, commitment, self-management, and social support. Comprised of roughly 100 items, it takes about 30 minutes to complete, and can be taken at orientation, during placement testing, in a student success course, or even outside the institution on a student's personal computer. Integrating noncognitive scores with indicators of academic achievement (e.g., placement or admissions test scores, high school GPA), the assessment can be used to identify students' likelihood for success, facilitate advising, or improve course placement decisions. Launched in the summer of 2013, SuccessNavigator has already been administered in more than 100 colleges and universities throughout the U.S., including a wide array of institutions - public and private, 2 and 4-year, urban and rural.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">SuccessNavigator contains several characteristics that any assessment-based institutional effort must contain. First, the measure supports reliable, valid, and fair inferences about students' noncognitive factors and likely success. Second, it provides immediate, interpretable student-level scores to both students and advisors. Third, and perhaps most importantly, it provides feedback and action plans, as well as references to campus resources, so that students and those who work with them have actionable information that can mediate risk and improve student success (for more information, see Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Throughout the research and development of SuccessNavigator, several institutions have demonstrated various ways that noncognitive assessment can be used to structure interactions with students. At Wilbur Wright College in Chicago, the use of noncognitive assessments to inform course placement decisions was explored in a large pilot program. Students whose placement test scores were near the cut score for a higher level course and who demonstrate a strong profile of noncognitive skills can be accelerated into the higher level of course—shortening their path to success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">At the University of New Mexico, the SuccessNavigator framework has been used to not only structure work with students, but to understand the relationships between various co-curricular services and these critical noncognitive skills. After UNM mapped each program and service to at least one noncognitive area, they developed an inventory of co-curricular resources, as well as a map that can be used to guide advisors. When a student scores low in a given area, advisors now know the full breadth of resources on campus that a student can engage with to develop that skill.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, however, SuccessNavigator exemplifies that no assessment is valuable in and of itself, but rather it is the use of that assessment that determines how effective it will be. By using assessment data, college staff can systematically identify students' strengths and challenges. By aligning noncognitive factors to campus resources, institutions have mechanisms in place to act on that information. Finally, by creating systems like intrusive advising and mandatory orientation, colleges establish mechanisms that can engage students proactively, rather than waiting for students to reach out for the support they need.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Conclusion</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In the final analysis, college and student success do not rely on changes in assessment practices alone. The challenge to improve college and student success is much more complex and requires a comprehensive approach to reform. If we expect to see changes in indicators like retention and graduation rates, we all must do something extra, or something different; otherwise, we are simply following the adage of continuing the same behavior and expecting different results. What we have tried to emphasize here is the comprehensive nature of that reform. How we place and instruct students in early courses is certainly an important aspect of success, but it is only one aspect, and each of these aspects<span style="color:red"> </span>faces significant hurdles.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">For example, recommendations from a study by Hodara, Jaggars, and Karp (2012), which examined practices and programs in community colleges across the country, outline the scope and difficulty that community colleges face with regard to placing students:</span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Administer placement exams in high schools.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Align high school exit and college entry standards.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Increase alignment between exams and college-level course content.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Provide opportunities for students to take practice exams.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Implement multiple measures, including affective measures.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Create consistent standards and assessments across the state.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">These efforts require substantive collaboration across educational levels, systems, and institutions; and building consensus in these climates is never easy. Yet this represents only those challenges in placing students, and doesn't speak to the remaining life cycle of student success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">With regard to curricular redesign and restructuring, institutions will need to work with faculty as they adapt to these models, often changing from the sage on the stage to the guide on the side. More involved advising efforts will now force institutions to reconsider the ways in which they engage with students, reaching out to those who need support and not just serving those who ask for it.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">These are formidable challenges for all institutions of higher education, but many colleges and universities are beginning to face these challenges and to make progress in improving retention and completion rates of their students. In this paper, we have argued for the inclusion of noncognitive assessments as part of the package of tools higher education can use to better place students in courses, better advise students on their journeys, and better help staff and students make decisions based on a more holistic approach to improving and expanding student learning and success. This is by no means a silver bullet to all the problems in community colleges and throughout higher education, but a more holistic view of students' skills can help to frame the conversation on those factors that are most relevant to student success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">References</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">ACT. (2013). ACT engage college domains and scales overview. 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The general factor of personality: A meta-analysis of Big Five intercorrelations and a criterion-related validity study.<span> </span><em>Journal of Research in Personality</em>,<span> </span><em>44</em>(3), 315-327.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Weinstein, G., &amp; Fantini, M. D. (1970). <em>Toward humanistic education: A curriculum of affect</em>. New York: </span><span style="font-size:8.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Praeger Publishers.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Wiley, A., Wyatt, J., &amp; Camara, W. J. (2010).<span> </span><em>The development of a multidimensional college readiness index</em>. (Research Report 2010-3). New York, NY: The College Board.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Yeager, D. S., &amp; Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They're not magic. <em>Review of Educational Research, 81</em>(2), 267-301.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ross Markle is a </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">Senior Research and Assessment Advisor in the Higher Education Division at </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: windowtext;"><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/company/educational-testing-service-ets?trk=ppro_cprof">Educational Testing Service (ETS)</a></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family: &quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">.</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> Terry O'Banion is President Emeritus of the League for Innovation in the Community College, a Senior League Fellow, and Chair of the Graduate Faculty at National American University.</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Opinions expressed in</span></em><span><em><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;"> </span></em></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Learning Abstracts<span><em> </em></span><em><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi">are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</span></em></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span></p> Kansas College Pushes Self-Service Registration urn:uuid:520264A3-1422-1766-9AA5529E4EB018E2 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Johnson County Community College shoots for 100 percent online registration success.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/showcase.gif" alt="Innovation Showcase" /></p> <p>November 2014, Volume 9, Number 11</p> <p><em>By Diane Carroll</em></p> <p>Two years ago, when online registration opened for fall classes at <a href="http://www.jccc.edu/" target="_blank">Johnson County Community College</a> (JCCC), the computer system slowed to a crawl and the telephone lines crashed.</p> <p>Not the kind of spring morning that anyone wanted at the college, which serves nearly 20,000 students each fall in Overland Park, Kansas, part of the Kansas City metropolitan area.</p> <p>The trouble was the timing. When registration opened at 8:00 a.m., students rushed to sign up for classes at the same time that hundreds of staffers were turning on their computers to start their day. The systems couldn’t handle the load.</p> <p>This spring, the Registrar’s office and Information Services took a new tack: They opened online registration in the evening—at 9:00 p.m.—when few people were using the college computers. They also pursued a new goal: to provide a self-service process that would be 100 percent successful. They wanted to set up the process so well that everyone who was registering could do so quickly and all on their own without the need to call anyone at the college for assistance. </p> <p>“The switch was flipped and within 10 minutes, more than 1,200 students flew into full registration mode, classes were selected and enrollment was completed,” said Dennis Day, Vice President for Student Success and Engagement. “By midnight, almost 2,400 students had participated and JCCC nearly hit a 100 percent participation mark with no alternative support.” </p> <p>Only 44 people called the Help Desk, and most of them just needed help to sign in.“We were full out prepared for complete disaster this time but from what we saw it did go very smoothly,” said Registrar Leslie Quinn. “It was a tremendous joint effort.” </p> <p>The college had offered self-service enrollment before, Day said, but the spring effort was the first to aim for 100 percent participation. </p> <p>“Most companies and institutions that offer self-service are happy with 70 or 80 percent participation,” he said. “But students are very digital now and think they should be able to get whatever they want online.”</p> <p>Day and Quinn said they believe the effort succeeded because of the preparation that was put into it.</p> <p>The effort was heavily marketed. Students understood that they needed to be prepared if they wanted first dibs on classes. They had to make sure in advance that they had completed any prerequisites and that all of their fees had been paid. In getting the word out, students also were advised that they could choose to wait to register until 8:00 a.m. the next day when assistance would be available.</p> <p>The next morning, only two people were in line for registration assistance. </p> <p>In prior years, there had been long lines, with some students arriving as early as 4:00 a.m.; many of those students would have been skipping their early classes to register. This year, they were in class as they should have been.</p> <p>“I think it’s a great convenience for students to allow them to register when they want to as opposed to when you make them,” Day said.</p> <p>For more information, contact <a href="mailto:dday@jccc.edu">Dennis Day</a>, Vice President for Student Success and Engagement at Johnson County Community College.</p> <p><em>Diane Carroll is a Staff Writer at Johnson County Community College.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Innovation Showcase<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> NACCTEP: Revolutionizing Community College Teacher Education Programs urn:uuid:5205C909-1422-1766-9A87F33CD5AC2297 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Join the National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs for their national conference in Boston, March 2015.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p align="center"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-11_nacctep.png" alt="" height="150" /></p> <p>Join the National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs (NACCTEP) at the <em>Revolutionizing Community College Teacher Education Programs </em>national conference March 6-8, 2015, at the Boston Marriott Copley Place. As our role in training teachers grows and budgets shrink, let us remember to utilize our most valuable resource—each other. <br /><br /> Learn about quality programs that are developing future teachers and enhancing the skills of practicing educators. <em>Revolutionizing</em> is the perfect opportunity to connect and network with colleagues and partners who share your passion for teacher education.<br /><br /> Visit the <a href="http://nacctep.riosalado.edu/_Conferences/2015_Boston/Index.html" target="_blank">NACCTEP conference website</a> for additional information.<br /><br /> <a href="http://nacctep.riosalado.edu/new/home.html" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about NACCTEP, a League for Innovation Bronze Corporate Partner.</p>