League for Innovation in the Community College tag:www.league.org,2014:/blog/ Mango 1.4.3 Innovative Educators Webinar Schedule urn:uuid:626C5677-1422-1766-9AF40708EB9E56F2 2014-12-01T01:12:13Z 2014-12-18T07:12:00Z <p>View the current schedule of upcoming webinars from League partner Innovative Educators.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>January 2015</strong></p> <p>12 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3297.htm">Support Student Success 24/7: StudentLingo Demo &amp; Implementation Strategies - Complimentary Webinar</a><br /><br /> 20 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3278.htm">Active Learning: Innovative Strategies That Will Dramatically Improve Student Engagement - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 20 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3284.htm">Teach Students How To Learn: Metacognition Is The Key - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 21 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3279.htm">Online Student Services: Creating A Virtual Career Center For Your College</a><br /><br /> 23 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3295.htm">A Step-By-Step Guide To Creating A Quality Veterans Resource Center On Your Campus</a><br /><br /> 26 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3285.htm">Time Management Strategies For Online Teaching: How To Engage Students &amp; Avoid Teacher Burnout - Complimentary Webinar</a></p> <p><strong>February 2015</strong><br /><br /> 3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3283.htm">How To Provide Excellent Customer Service In Higher Education</a><br /><br /> 3 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3287.htm">Back by Popular Demand!- How To Retain First-Year Students: Helping Them Navigate Emotional, Motivational &amp; Social Challenges</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3281.htm">Managing Overly Involved Parents: Effective Strategies For Deescalating Aggressive Behavior</a><br /><br /> 4 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3296.htm">Increasing Student Persistence &amp; Success: 5 High-Impact Practices For Immediate Implementation</a><br /><br /> 5 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3282.htm">Managing Disruptive Classroom Behavior: Strategies For Creating A Safe &amp; Dynamic Learning Environment</a><br /><br /> 11 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3288.htm">Strategies To Motivate Your Students To Read &amp; Prepare Before Class</a><br /><br /> 20 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3260.htm">Helping Students Cope With Loss Using Social Media: Risks, Benefits &amp; Ethical Issues - Complimentary Webinar</a><br /><br /> 25 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3278.htm">Active Learning: Innovative Strategies That Will Dramatically Improve Student Engagement - Flexible Date</a><br /><br /> 25 <a href="http://www.innovativeeducators.org/product_p/3284.htm">Teach Students How To Learn: Metacognition Is The Key - Flexible Date</a></p> <p> </p> The League Partners With Syndio Social and Ithaka S+R to Learn How Social Network Mapping Can Help Higher Education Leaders urn:uuid:06D6388D-1422-1766-9A93B9C697C31247 2014-12-01T10:12:02Z 2014-12-01T04:12:00Z <p>The League, Syndio Social, and Ithaka S+R have partnered to explore what social network analysis can tell us about the adoption of innovative practices in higher education.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/leadership_abstracts.gif" alt="Leadership Abstract" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 27, Number 12</p> <p><em>By </em><em>Rebecca Griffiths</em></p> <p>Social network analysis has been used to predict and influence the spread of behaviors from smoking to weight loss to adoption of new technologies. Researchers have found that personal relationships have a huge impact on how we act, and that people play different roles in social networks: brokers transmit information across groups; sensors control which information permeates a group; and key influencers drive opinions and set agendas. Furthermore, the structure of communities can help us understand where silos exist and which groups are more influential than others in the transfer of knowledge. What can this method tell us about the diffusion of innovative educational practices and adoption of emerging technology in colleges and universities? Can social network maps be used as tools for top administrators to launch new initiatives with more success?</p> <p>The League for Innovation has partnered with <a href="https://syndiosocial.com/" target="_blank">Syndio Social</a>, <a href="http://www.sr.ithaka.org/" target="_blank">Ithaka S+R</a>, and the <a href="http://www.aascu.org/">American Association of State Colleges and Universities</a> to explore these questions, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.* The effort began in February 2014 with a deep look into eight community colleges and eight comprehensives in order to understand their social network characteristics. The partners conducted on-site interviews with senior administrators and then built social network maps of each institution based on survey data from faculty members and staff. The maps are currently helping the institutions’ leaders in several ways. First, leaders are using the maps to identify and empower rising stars and foster connections across groups. Second, the maps highlight communication gaps and organizational silos, and help leaders develop data-driven strategies to close these gaps. Finally, the maps can help leaders understand why some institutions are more successful at innovation than others and help them spread innovations within their institutions. </p> <p>The second phase of the project, launched in October, aims to survey a broader set of top institutional leaders to learn more about the role that influential individuals play in advancing adoption of online learning innovations, such as personalized learning technologies, across higher education. The resulting institutional influencer network will allow community college leaders to understand the higher education universe in a new way — through relationships and channels, not just institutions and segments. Furthermore, it will provide audiences of this work the ability to target information dissemination and facilitate strategic conversations about how higher education can better meet the needs of key constituents, such as low-income, first-generation college students. </p> <p>The first phase of the project revealed some striking findings. In our sample of institutions, attitudes towards the potential for technology to improve education are generally very high, though less so among key groups such as faculty and library staff. In addition, the diffusion of new practices and technologies is impeded by long lines of communication; ideas and information must travel through many steps to reach those who interact directly with students. This leads to noise in the knowledge transfer process and decreases the likelihood that innovations will be adopted successfully. Social network maps may help leaders devise strategies to engage faculty more directly and foster more cross-departmental collaboration. </p> <p>We look forward to sharing findings from the cross-institutional survey with our community.  Please direct questions about the project to <a href="mailto:kate.wulfson@ithaka.org">Kate Wulfson</a> at Ithaka S+R or <a href="mailto:allison@syndiosocial.com">Allison Zuzelo</a> at Syndio Social.</p> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td height="34"><span style="font-family: arial; font-size:9px;">*Syndio Social, a company that grew out of research on social network analysis at Northwestern University, will provide expertise and tools for collecting and analyzing data on social networks. Ithaka S+R, a not-for-profit research and advisory service, helps academic, publishing, and cultural communities make the transition to the digital world.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><em>Rebecca Griffiths</em><em> is the Online Learning Program Director at Ithaka S+R.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Leadership Abstracts<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> NSF’s Community College Innovation Challenge Participants’ Guide urn:uuid:D2E1D5E2-1422-1766-9AA0976B2845501A 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T09:12:00Z <p>The National Science Foundation outlines its Community College Innovation Challenge participant guidelines.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/showcase.gif" alt="Innovation Showcase" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 9, Number 12</p> <p><em>From the National Science Foundation</em></p> <p align="center"><br /> <img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Innovation_NSF_Logo.jpg" alt="http://www.nsf.gov/images/logos/nsf1.jpg" width="96" /></p> <p> <strong>DESCRIPTION</strong><br /> Scientific progress is the hallmark of a dynamic society and the United States leads the world in scientific discoveries. An important aspect of scientific progress is the education of future scientists. Improvements in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula, particularly changes that engage students in the process of research and discovery, have become a focal point for attracting more students into science. Undergraduate research is a significant strategy for improving undergraduate STEM education.</p> <p>Community colleges prepare technicians who will become an integral part of research efforts and students who will continue their educations at four-year institutions. Further, they play a significant role in the preparation of underrepresented groups in science. Community colleges have long recognized the importance of mentoring students and have a history of success in educating underrepresented students for successful careers in STEM. Thus, community colleges play an important role in workforce development in their states and local communities. Industry frequently looks to community colleges to provide an educated and technologically up-to-date workforce. The National Science Foundation’s thrust of incorporating research into the traditional teaching mission of the community college is a relatively new expansion of its mission. This challenge furthers NSF’s mission by enabling students to discover and demonstrate their capacity to use science to make a difference in the world, and to transfer knowledge into action.</p> <table border="0" width="535"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="76"><strong>Who:</strong></td> <td width="535">Teams of three to five community college students, a faculty mentor, and a community or industry partner.</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><strong>What:</strong></td> <td> <p>Teams proposing innovative STEM-based solutions for real-world problems they identify within one of the following themes: </p> <blockquote> <p><strong>Big Data </strong> <br /> <strong>Infrastructure Security</strong><strong>Sustainability (including water, food, energy, environment)</strong><br /> <strong> Broadening Participation in STEM</strong><br /> <strong>Improving STEM Education</strong></p> </blockquote> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>When: </strong></td> <td>Sept. 15, 2014, to Jan. 15, 2015</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Where:</strong></td> <td> <p>The challenge's online platform, www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge, where you can learn more about the challenge, access resources, register and submit your written entry and 90-second video.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Why: </strong></td> <td> <p>To foster the development of crucial innovation skills.<strong></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA</strong></p> <ul> <li>All entries must be received during the competition submission window, from Sept. 15, 2014, to Jan. 15, 2015.</li> <li>Each team must have three to five student members, a faculty member who will function as a mentor to the team and a community/industry partner. If the team is chosen to participate in the Innovation Boot Camp, the mentor must accompany the team to the Boot Camp and the partner will be encouraged to attend. </li> <li>All student team members must be enrolled in a two-year, associate degree-granting institution in the U.S., its territories or its possessions at the time of entry (e.g., the fall 2014 semester or the spring 2015 semester).</li> <li>Student team members must be in good standing with their academic institution.</li> <li>Teams may consist of members from multiple institutions.</li> <li>Student team members are limited to participating in one team project for this challenge.</li> <li>Student and faculty mentor team members must be U.S. citizens, nationals or permanent residents. </li> <li>All team members must be at least 18 years of age by Jan. 15, 2015.</li> <li>A faculty member may serve as a mentor for one or more teams.</li> <li>Faculty mentors will be required to sign a certificate stating that the entry is original and has been independently developed by the student members of the team.</li> </ul> <p><strong>ENTRY GUIDELINES</strong></p> <p>A complete entry consists of two components, a written entry and a video entry, described below. Teams should review the entry form on the online platform for more details about the submission requirements and process.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Written Entry </span><br /> The written entry will be submitted on the challenge platform in the three sections detailed below. Each section has a 1,600-character limit, including spaces.</p> <ul> <li><strong>The Problem. </strong>Clearly and succinctly define the problem of interest. Provide relevant background information and identify the context of the problem (i.e., who is affected, how long has the problem existed). Indicate why it is important that this problem be solved, as well as the impact if the problem were to continue without intervention. </li> <li><strong>The Solution. </strong>Describe your team’s innovative solution. What science and/or technology underlie the solution? What challenges or barriers must be overcome to make the solution a reality? </li> <li><strong>Impacts and Benefits.</strong> Describe how your team would measure the impact and benefits of your solution, if implemented. The benefits for science, industry, society, the economy, national security and/or other applicable areas must be addressed. </li> </ul> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Video Entry </span><br /> The video entry should consist of a single, 90-second video.</p> <ul> <li>The video should be used to clearly articulate the problem, what could happen if the problem is not resolved and your team’s proposed solution. The video entry should have a unified voice, vitality and energy, and should emphasize new methods and insights not provided in the written entry to create a novel presentation while telling a compelling story. A successful entry will be visually striking and will be captured and edited to a high standard. The video entry should also deliver clear and understandable messages using non-technical language. </li> <li>Videos do not have to include credits, but if they do, these will be included in the 90-second time limit.</li> <li>Teams must upload video submissions to YouTube and provide a link to the video on the entry form. Teams advancing to the semifinal round will be required to submit their video file (an MOV file recorded in HD at a minimum resolution of 1280x720) via the online challenge platform to be displayed on the challenge website for public viewing.</li> </ul> <p><strong>THE PROCESS AND PRIZES</strong></p> <ol> <li>All entries will be screened for compliance with the rules.</li> <li>Each entry will be evaluated anonymously based on the stated criteria and will be assigned a numerical score by each judge. Judges will score each of the four criteria on a 5-point scale. The four scores will then be combined for a total possible score of 20 points.</li> <li>Up to 10 highest scoring entries in each of the five themes will become semifinalists (no more than 50 semifinalist teams total). If insufficient entries are received, NSF reserves the right to adjust the ratios of semifinalists. The semifinalists’ videos will be posted on the competition website for public viewing.</li> <li>A separate panel of judges will evaluate all semifinalist entries based on the same judging criteria used in the first round. Up to 10 highest scoring entries will selected for the final round (two per theme, unless insufficient entries are received). All finalist teams will receive feedback from the judges to help them improve their projects for the Innovation Boot Camp. </li> <li>Finalist teams will be invited to attend a three day Innovation Boot Camp, a professional development workshop on innovation and entrepreneurship. The Innovation Boot Camp will provide professional development sessions on a variety of basic entrepreneurial skills relevant to innovation in both the private and public sectors. Sessions will include information applicable to commercializing ideas, using technology for social applications, communicating with stakeholders and creating a business strategy, among other topics. Some details about the Innovation Boot Camp are below – more detailed instructions will be provided to finalist teams: <ul> <li>Student and mentor team members will have all travel, room and board costs associated with attending the Innovation Boot Camp paid on their behalf. Community/industry partners are encouraged to attend the Boot Camp at their own expense.</li> <li>Six weeks before attending the Innovation Boot Camp, finalists will receive detailed instructions on how to prepare for the camp. Mentors of finalist teams will receive $500 to distribute to the team to further develop their idea and to design a presentation for the final round of judging at the Boot Camp. </li> <li>Teams will be encouraged to refine and improve upon their original entry over the course of the Boot Camp.</li> <li>The final round of judging will consist of a five-minute, live presentation before a distinguished panel of judges at the end of the Boot Camp. <ul> <li>Teams will present their solutions and explain how they plan to move forward to accomplish their goals. Presentations should be informative and entertaining. Materials used for the presentation may include videos, computer programs, models, prototypes, graphics, displays, etc. </li> <li>Cash prizes: each student member of the first-place team will receive $3,000, second-place student team members will receive $2,000 each, and third-place student team members will receive $1,000 each.<strong> </strong></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> </ol> <p><strong>JUDGING ROUNDS</strong></p> <p>Preliminary Round: Jan. 29 – Feb. 19<span style="text-decoration: underline;"></span></p> <p>Semifinal Round: March 5 – March 19<span style="text-decoration: underline;"></span></p> <p>Final Round at Innovation Boot Camp: June 15-19, 2015</p> <p><strong>JUDGING CRITERIA</strong></p> <p>Judges will equally weigh the following criteria when scoring the entries:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Innovation and impact.</strong> An assessment of the proposed solution’s use of science to address the problem, potential impact (potential to be transformative) and uniqueness (how the proposed solution differs from existing efforts in its use of novel concepts, methods and/or instrumentation).</li> <li><strong>Scientific accuracy.</strong> An assessment of the application of scientific laws and theory and an evaluation of the methods used to research the topic and test the proposed solution.</li> <li><strong>Feasibility.</strong> An assessment of the likelihood that the solution will work as presented based on relevant economic, political and social issues, etc. Evaluation of the team’s recognition of potential barriers and suggestions for ways in which these barriers may be surmounted.</li> <li><strong>Clarity of communication.</strong> An assessment of the team’s adherence to the entry guidelines (written and video entries), as well as grammar, structure, organization of the facts and data, etc. The entry should have a clear, consistent message.</li> </ol> <p><strong>SUMMARY OF RULES</strong></p> <ul> <li>A contest entry constitutes an agreement to adhere to the rules and stipulations set forth by the contest sponsors.</li> <li>Any entrant or entry found in violation of any rule will be disqualified.</li> <li>Each team entrant certifies, through submission to the contest, that the entry is their own original creative work and does not violate or infringe the creative work of others, as protected under U.S. copyright law or patent law.</li> <li>By entering the contest, the entrants agree to hold harmless, NSF for all legal and administrative claims to include associated expenses that may arise from any claims related to their submission or its use.</li> <li>All judges’ decisions are final and may not be appealed.</li> <li>Entrants retain all copyright and equivalent rights but give NSF nonexclusive rights to use their names, likenesses, quotes, submissions or any part of the submissions for educational publicity and/or promotional purposes. This includes, but is not limited to, website display, print materials and exhibits.</li> <li>NSFwill not be responsible for any claims or complaints from third parties about any disputes of ownership regarding the ideas, solutions, images or video.</li> <li>Winners are responsible for all taxes or other fees connected with the prize received and/or travel paid for by the sponsoring organization.</li> <li>Employees, contractors, officers or judges of the sponsoring organizations are not eligible to enter the competition.</li> <li>If for any reason, including but not limited to an insufficient number of qualified entries is received, NSF reserves the right to modify or cancel the competition at any time during the duration of the competition.</li> <li>Should NSF decide to bring winning contestants to Washington, D.C., or to any other location for promotional and other purposes, expenses paid by NSF will be within the limits set forth in law according to federal travel regulations. </li> <li>All contestants agree that they, their heirs and estates shall hold harmless the United States, the employees of the federal government, and all employees of NSF for any and all injuries and/or claims arising from participation in this contest, to include that which may occur while traveling to or participating in contest activities. </li> <li>NSF has the final say on any point not outlined in the entry rules.</li> </ul> <p>This content for this issue of <em>Innovation Showcase</em> was provided by the National Science Foundation. <a href="http://www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge" target="_blank">Click here</a> for more information about the Community College Innovation Challenge.</p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Innovation Showcase<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> Making the Most of Advising and Planning Technologies: A Tool for Colleges urn:uuid:D2EC7ED5-1422-1766-9A979A3A6C91C0CE 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Community College Research Center researches and assists colleges with the implementation and adoption of integrated planning and advising service technologies.<strong> </strong></p> <p> </p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>December 2014, Volume 17, Number 12<strong> </strong><br /><br /> <em>By Melinda Mechur Karp</em><br /><br /> There is a growing consensus across the country that college students need more support to help them reach their academic and career goals. Integrated Planning and Advising Service technologies (IPAS)—with their capacity to leverage big data and create more coherence and coordination among services—are increasingly viewed by colleges as an efficient means to address this challenge.</p> <p>IPAS technologies enable students to better plan their path through college, and allow faculty and advisors to monitor and reach out to individual students if they go off track. With such capacity, IPAS holds the promise of improving rates of student retention, persistence, and completion. However, <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/research-project/integrated-planning-and-advising-services.html" target="_blank">ongoing research</a> by Community College Research Center (CCRC) into IPAS implementation and use indicates that most colleges have not spent sufficient time envisioning what they hope to achieve with the technology, and how exactly they hope to achieve it.</p> <p>Technology by itself is never a silver bullet: It is merely a tool that can be used to achieve larger aims. In the case of IPAS, this larger aim is a more effective and efficient system of advising. Colleges hoping to benefit from IPAS must, therefore, broaden their focus from mere <em>implementation—</em>getting the technology deployed and available for use—to the more challenging work of <em>adoption—</em>the process of getting people to incorporate the technology into their day-to-day work. Successful adoption requires colleges to develop a shared understanding of their larger reform goal, the role technology will play in achieving that goal, and the structures and work processes that must change to best leverage IPAS in the context of the reform. </p> <p>For example, imagine that a college decides that it needs a more personalized advising system. The college might conclude that an IPAS case management system—which allows faculty and advisors to record and access all student-faculty or student-advisor interactions in a single electronic case file—is the best tool to help them achieve this goal.</p> <p>The next step should be for stakeholders to think through what other changes must occur in order to make the best use of the technology. For instance, the college would henceforth want to assign each student to a specific advisor with whom they meet throughout their time at the college. The advisors would need to change their daily practice so that instead of meeting with a student cold and spending valuable time gathering basic information, they would review the student’s case file prior to the meeting, allowing them to immediately zero in on the student’s particular issues. After the meeting, advisors would record what had transpired for reference at the next meeting.</p> <p>Another college may adopt an IPAS system as part of a guided pathways reform. Thinking through how the technology should be used to further the aims of this larger reform, the college might decide that students changing majors should be required—via an alert and registration freeze—to see an advisor. The advisor could then use IPAS to minimize credit loss, by showing the student which alternate majors would accept most of their classes.</p> <p>This kind of deliberate articulation of how IPAS will be used to help a college achieve larger goals has been rare at the institutions we have studied; instead, the focus has been on the nuts and bolts of getting IPAS systems off the ground. While a focus on the technical aspects of reform is not unusual, colleges need to push themselves to do the harder work of adoption.</p> <p>To aid colleges in these efforts, CCRC has recently released a new <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/evaluating-your-colleges-readiness-for-technology-adoption.html" target="_blank">self assessment tool</a> that colleges can use to gauge their readiness for technology adoption. This tool is based on a <a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/adopting-new-technologies-for-student-success.html" target="_blank">readiness framework</a> CCRC released in May, which delineates four areas of readiness to address when investing in IPAS systems: technological, organizational, project, and motivational.</p> <p>CCRC’s self assessment tool is designed to push stakeholders from across the college to talk about what they expect to happen when IPAS is implemented. Such conversations can enable a consensus about the problem being addressed, and the approach to solving it. CCRC research suggests that without a shared vision of benefits, IPAS adoption is unlikely to result in transformational change. College leaders, faculty, and advisors must together articulate what they hope to achieve and how, so that they can work together to bring their goal to fruition.</p> <p><em>Melinda Mechur Karp is the Assistant Director for Staff &amp; Institutional Development at the Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Learning Abstracts<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> Member Spotlight: Chandler-Gilbert Community College urn:uuid:D2F84EA4-1422-1766-9ADFE5B6B890E386 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Chandler-Gilbert Community College’s Coyote Center offers academic, athletic, enrollment, and student services in one location.<strong></strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>CGCC's New Coyote Center Strives to Impact Student Success</strong></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="20" width="377" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="bottom" valign="bottom"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_CGCC_Pic2.png" alt="" hspace="0" width="223" height="133" align="bottom" /></td> <td> </td> <td align="bottom"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_CGCC_Pic1.png" alt="" width="196" height="186" align="bottom" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a href="http://www.cgc.maricopa.edu/Pages/Default.aspx" target="_blank">Chandler-Gilbert Community College</a> (CGCC) recently celebrated the grand opening of the Coyote Center, a new multi-functional facility serving as the front door of CGCC's Pecos Campus. The new 74,859-square-foot center is one of just a few buildings in the nation to innovatively blend academics, athletics, enrollment services, and student affairs into one location.</p> <p>The building was designed around a new model of student service that eliminates inefficiencies, like waiting in multiple lines. By combining most administrative resources under one roof and training staff to handle a broader range of services, students can address things like registration, financial aid, and other enrollment service matters in one location.</p> <p>The innovative Coyote Center design also creates efficiencies by maximizing the utility of each physical space. Many of the spaces can be easily reconfigured to adapt to the ever-changing needs of higher education. For instance, a daytime student waiting area becomes the lobby for an athletics game in the evening. Classrooms transform into a group fitness space or a hospitality suite for an athletics game.</p> <p>“Students and what they need to succeed are at the heart of our design process and the Coyote Center impacts the student experience from the first time they walk in the door,” said Linda Lujan, President of Chandler-Gilbert Community College. “We want to respect students' time and provide them with the most efficient process possible to complete the administrative side of attending college so they can focus on their studies.”</p> <p>Athletics has been greatly impacted with the addition of the Coyote Center on campus, allowing the centralization of all nine athletic teams and their coaching staff to one campus. A new gymnasium, located in the center of the building, is now the largest gathering space for athletic, college, or community events, with bleacher seating for 1,000. This area also includes six new locker rooms, a 4,000-square-foot fitness center featuring state-of-the-art equipment, and a new outdoor turf field. <br /> <br /> "We feel the Coyote Center will be a difference-maker in our pursuit of local student athletes," said Ed Yeager, Athletic Director at CGCC. "Not only will our athletes have access to latest and greatest athletic and fitness equipment, but they will also have access to the new Human Performance Office and Lab which offers a variety of support to student athletes as they pursue their academic and athletic careers at CGCC." </p> <p>The Coyote Center was also designed to meet the needs of the college's ongoing commitment to environmental stewardship and sustainability. The building incorporates many sustainable operations that make it certifiable LEED Gold rating. Examples of sustainable operations include the use of a sophisticated climate and lighting control system, the reuse and retention of rain water, a solar heating system, and the use of LED technology. The facility was completed on time and under budget with the full cost of $28.6 million coming from the public's approval of the 2004 General Obligation Bond Funds.</p> <p>The official grand opening event for the Coyote Center was held on September 24, 2014, and featured more than 150 guests including Maricopa County Community College District speakers, elected officials, the Coyote Center architects, and construction company, college and student representatives.  </p> <p><a href="http://www.cgc.edu/coyotecenter" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about Coyote Center.</p> Member Spotlight: Wake Technical Community College urn:uuid:D2FB2010-1422-1766-9AB435483F5934D5 2014-12-01T08:12:01Z 2014-12-01T08:12:00Z <p>Wake Tech’s Associate in Applied Science in Business Analytics prepares students for world-recognized industry certifications.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p align="center"><br /> <img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-12_Member_WakeTechnical.png" alt="" width="173" height="213" /></p> <p><a href="http://www.waketech.edu/" target="_blank">Wake Technical Community College</a> (Wake Tech) is the largest of the 58 community colleges in the North Carolina Community College System, enrolling more than 70,000 students a year. It is a two-year, public institution with an open door admissions policy, serving the 1,000,000+ residents of Wake County with five campuses, two training centers, and multiple community sites, and online. It is also one of the fastest-growing community colleges in the United States.</p> <p>Wake Tech’s mission is to improve and enrich lives by meeting the lifelong education, training, and workforce development needs of the community. The college’s vision is to exceed the expectations of stakeholders for effective lifelong education, training, and workforce development by providing world-class programs and services. Doubling its student population in the last 10 years, Wake Tech and its faculty are firmly committed to providing innovative education that surpasses traditional community college offerings and prepares students for the demands of today’s workplace.</p> <p>Reflective of its future forward thinking, Wake Tech was awarded a $2.9 million Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant in October 2012 to launch the first and only Associate in Applied Science (AAS) in Business Analytics in the nation. A McKinsey report, <em>Big Data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity</em> (2011), predicted a shortage of talent in data analysis as soon as 2018; shortages of 140,000-190,000 workers and as many as 1.5 million managers and analysts with analytical data skills. The AAS in Business Analytics is designed to bridge this skills gap and provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary for employment and growth in analytical professions.</p> <p>Students may register for the AAS degree as well as for any of six 12-credit certificates in Business Intelligence, Business Analyst, Finance Analytics, Marketing Analytics, Database Analytics, and Logistics Analytics. An accelerated program is also available that allows students to complete a certificate in two semesters, completely online.</p> <p>The Business Analytics program prepares students for world-recognized industry certifications. It has an active advisory board of industry representatives who provide input on the curriculum and its relevance for today’s industry needs. The program focuses on real-world applications of concepts through the use of projects and case studies that rely on actual data; students are also encouraged to bring their own work projects into the classroom. Courses are offered in online, hybrid, and seated formats. Competitive tuition, open-door enrollment, flexible scheduling options, access to industry-recognized tools, and a variety of credential options make enrollment in the program both accessible and affordable.</p> <p>Future plans include the creation of a free Business Analytics MOOC, and a Summer Institute. In addition, the program intends to provide support to nonprofit and charity organizations in need of analytics and data-related assistance.</p> <p>For more information, contact <a href="mailto:wmartin@waketech.edu">Walter Martin</a>, Dean of Business and Public Services Technologies, or <a href="mailto:tescott1@waketech.edu">Tanya Scott</a>, Director of the Business Analytics Department.</p> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td><span style="font-family: arial; font-size:9px;"> <p>References</p> <p>McKinsey Global Institute. (2011). Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation" target="_blank">http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation</a></p> </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Assessing Affective Factors to Improve Retention and Completion urn:uuid:5C7D6593-1422-1766-9AF82872EC5CBA00 2014-11-01T08:11:13Z 2014-11-03T08:11:00Z <p>New affective domain research is changing the conversation about key skills and behaviors in higher education.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>November 2014, Volume 17, Number 11</p> <p>Editor's Note: The League is pleased to present this expanded issue of <em>Learning Abstracts</em>. <a href="/publication/leagueconnections/2014_11_Learning Abstracts_AssessingAffectiveFactors.pdf" target="_blank">Click here</a> to download a print-friendly version.</p> <p><em style="line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;line-height:200%;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">By </span></em><em style="line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size:10.0pt; line-height:200%;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ross Markle and Terry O'Banion</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Bloom's Taxonomy may be the most recognized framework in all of education. Categorizing learning objectives into cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains appeared to be common sense at the time the construct was created, and the domains both thrived and evolved over decades with many applications and revisions.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Benjamin Bloom and four of his colleagues met over a period of years during the late 1940s and early 1950s as a group of educational psychologists seeking to create a framework of learning objectives as a basis for designing curricula, tests, and research. In 1956, they published </span><em style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Taxonomy of Educational Objectives – The Classification of Educational Goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain</em><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">, which became one of the most significant books ever published in education. In 1973, several other psychologists, including Bloom, also published a book on the affective domain, though an effort explicating the psychomotor domain was never published. Their work initially focused on the cognitive domain, perhaps because many at the time believed it too difficult to define, let alone assess, the affective domain (Martin &amp; Reigeluth, 1992). Over the next several decades, most educators would also focus here, as the cognitive domain served as the foundation for most of traditional education. In Bloom's Taxonomy, the cognitive domain reflects knowledge, the psychomotor domain reflects skills, and the affective domain reflects attitudes.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Although educators and researchers recognize the value and importance of the affective domain to student success (e.g., Furst, 1981; Griffith Nguyen, 2006; Martin &amp; Reigeluth, 1992), it is the least applied and least understood of the taxonomy trilogy. Knowledge and skills are easier to understand and apply in the educational process; the affective domain reflects the world of feelings, values, appreciation, motivation, and attitudes—factors much more difficult to understand and assess.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The Affective Domain</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Both implicitly and explicitly, there have been some grand experiments designed to emphasize the affective domain. Traditionally, residential education, student clubs and associations, dons and mentors, and counseling and student services have been the primary programmatic attempts to help students improve their interactions with others, to explore values and prejudices, and to increase self-understanding and self-esteem. For example, the Learning and Development Outcomes developed by the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (Strayhorn, 2006) have served as the primary framework for student affairs and co-curricular programs and services—including housing and residence life, advising, and counseling services—for nearly a decade, and focus heavily on "intrapersonal development," "interpersonal competence," and "humanitarianism and civic engagement," among other areas.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There have also been some philosophical and psychological movements that have attempted to embed the affective domain into the educational enterprise. These include Progressive Education (Hayes, 2006; Reese, 2001), the Humanistic Education Movement Weinstein &amp; Fantini; 1970), and theories of self-concept and self-esteem (Burns, 1982; Lawrence, 2006).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">But no matter the quality and number of champions of the affective domain—John Dewey, Carl Rogers, Arthur Combs, and Abraham Maslow decades ago, and current leading researchers and educators such as Angela Duckworth, Carol Dweck, Patrick Kyllonen, Martin Seligman, and Roger Steinberg—the affective domain has remained the stepchild of the taxonomic trilogy when it comes to funded research, practice, and programs. However, new research, which often refers to the affective domain with terms such as noncognitive factors, psychosocial skills, or soft skills, is changing the conversation about key skills and behaviors in higher education.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Slowly Taking Hold</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">With the emergence of the Completion and Student Success Agendas (e.g., Hellyer, 2012; Hughes, 2012; Humphreys, 2012; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Mullin, 2010</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">) informing the overarching mission of higher education, the affective domain may find a more welcoming climate in the halls of academe. The community college may become the ideal incubator for demonstrating the significant role the affective domain can play to expand and improve student learning and increase retention and completion. Community colleges have been assigned the toughest tasks in all of higher education, and their leaders and their faculties have experimented for decades with traditional models of education. They are now turning to less traditional models and welcome the opportunity to innovate and explore new ideas, new structures, and new incentives—many based on practices and programs that incorporate the affective domain.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There is now general agreement among educational leaders and researchers that assessing students more effectively on affective dimensions, along with assessments of academic knowledge and incorporating past indicators of success such as high school GPA, is a promising direction for community colleges and other educational institutions committed to increasing retention and completion rates.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A shift toward the affective domain began in the early 1990s, when then United States Secretary of Labor, Lynn Martin, appointed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. The Commission then released </span><em style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">What Work Requires of Schools</em><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"> (SCANS, 1991), which described the cultural, industrial, and sociological changes that required students to learn a different set of skills, particularly to be effective in the workplace. Not only did this involve a shift in the cognitive domain, emphasizing factors such as information literacy and the effective use of technology, but it also emphasized the soft skills reflective of the affective domain, including factors such as interpersonal skills and personal qualities (e.g., responsibility, self-esteem).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Since the publication of that report, many similar efforts, including those led by groups such as the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2004), the National Research Council (2008, 2009, 2011, 2012), and the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (see Elias, 1997), have also sought to promote the inclusion of the affective domain, using various nomenclature, frameworks, and theoretical models, into models of student learning and educational practice. Specifically in higher education, frameworks over the past decade have expanded the domain of learning to almost seamlessly include cognitive and affective domains in defining what students should know and be able to do after completing college (e.g., Adelman, Ewell, Gaston, &amp; Schneider, 2011; Association of American Colleges and Universities., 2007; Markle, Brenneman, Jackson, Burrus, &amp; Robbins, 2013; Strayhorn, 2006). For example, while communication skills might include the ability to read, write, and speak effectively (traditionally cognitive skills), many modern definitions of effective communication also include interpersonal components—the ability to read and interpret one's audience, tailor a message effectively, or persuade others—that might be considered affective (or noncognitive). In this way, communication is neither a cognitive nor affective skill, but a combination of both.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">In addition to changing the outputs of higher education, affective factors have also been added to the list of key inputs, or predictors of success, in higher education. Several large, meta-analytic studies over the past decade have shown the importance of these domains (Poropat, 2009; Richardson, Abraham, &amp; Bond, 2012;</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;"> </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, Langley, &amp; Carlstrom, 2004; Robbins, Oh, Le, &amp; Button, 2009). These studies have rather conclusively demonstrated three important points about affective factors and student success. First, affective factors significantly predict student success. Second, this predictive validity is significant, even when controlling for variables such as standardized test scores, high school GPA, and socioeconomic status. Third, the relative importance of affective variables, vis-á-vis academic achievement, may be even greater when referring to persistence outcomes. That is, while test scores and high school GPA are strong predictors of college GPA, they have been shown to be weaker predictors of retention than noncognitive skills (see Robbins et al., 2004).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In addition to demonstrating their ability to predict success, research has demonstrated two other points about the malleability of affective areas that make them pertinent to the student success conversation. It was a long held tenet of psychology that personality traits (another moniker for the affective domain) are stable once established in adulthood. If this were true, and personality fixed and unchangeable, then using affective variables to indicate success would be less relevant for suggesting interventions. For example, demographic variables such as race/ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status have been consistently shown to be correlated with success. Yet these factors are not only immutable, but also provide no information about how to mediate risk for traditionally underserved groups (Eaton &amp; Bean, 1995). </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">However, a meta-analysis by Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006) showed that personality does indeed fluctuate significantly over one's lifetime. Moreover, Yeager and Walton (2011) reviewed several studies that showed effective psychosocial interventions that not only improved skills and behaviors, but had long-term impacts on student success. Effective interventions generally shared three characteristics. First, they had a firm basis in social psychological theory, meaning that they identified and addressed the underlying phenomenon (e.g., self-efficacy) that drives student success. Second, they were engaging activities, rather than instructional lectures. Third, these interventions were stealthy in nature, such that students were not directly instructed that the intervention was targeting psychosocial factors.</span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, the studies by Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbaur (2006),Yeager and Walton (2011), and others demonstrate perhaps the most important aspect of the affective domain: Not only do these factors impact success, but they are also malleable and can be changed. Unlike other factors that are fixed—either by their inherent nature or the sheer mass of intervention required to do so (e.g., socioeconomic status) —the affective domain directly impacts success <em>and</em> allows interventions that can make changes in student behavior. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Defining and Structuring the Affective Domain</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Recently, several popular efforts have emerged to apply various dimensions of the affective domain, though under different names. These include "grit" (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, &amp; Kelly, 2007), "character" (Tough, 2013), and "hope" (Snyder, 2000), and are characterized by focusing on a common trait that determines student success above and beyond traditional indicators of achievement. Although these studies add to the extant body of literature which has already thoroughly demonstrated the importance of psychosocial skills, they do present some challenges to the larger inclusion of the affective domain into higher education.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In some cases, they cloud the picture of the affective domain by adding relatively synonymous terms to its already vast construct space. For example, Duckworth et al. (2007) espoused the importance of grit, but at the same time found it to be highly correlated with the personality domain of conscientiousness. This convergence should not come as a surprise, given grit's definition ("perseverance and passion for long-term goals"), nor should its predictive value, given the findings of Poropat (2009) and Robbins et al. (2004; 2009), which demonstrated the importance of conscientiousness and its various facets.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Ironically, some of these efforts also oversimplify the role of affective factors. For example, in describing "hope," Lopez (2009) provided the following definition:</span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:0in;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt"><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Hopeful students see the future as better than the present, and believe they have the power to make it so. These students are energetic and full of life. They are able to develop many strategies to reach goals and plan contingencies in the event that they are faced with problems along the way. As such, obstacles are viewed as challenges to overcome and are bypassed by garnering support and/or implementing alternative pathways. Perceiving the likelihood of good outcomes, these students focus on success and, therefore, experience greater positive affect and less distress. Generally, high-hope people experience less anxiety and less stress specific to test-taking situations. (p. 1)<span style="color:red"></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">This definition of a seemingly singular trait—hope—contains references to several domains of personality. Yet a meta-analysis by van der Linden, te Nijenhius, and Bakker (2010), found that the highest observed correlation between any two personality factors was .32, suggesting large amounts of unique variance among these areas. Meta-analyses in academic settings (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004) have produced similar findings. As such, representing these concepts under the auspices of one term misrepresents their granularity and nuance. In order to develop an effective understanding of the affective domain and, more importantly, effective strategies to intervene with students, we must acknowledge that the affective domain is as diverse and complex as the cognitive one.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There have been a number of efforts to frame this complexity. For one, some (e.g., Poropat, 2009) have applied the "big five" personality factors (Goldberg, 1990). This widely used model describes human characteristics and behavior in five broad categories: extraversion (talkative, sociable, outgoing), agreeableness (tolerant, courteous, trustworthy), conscientiousness (industrious, reliable, orderly), emotional stability (self-reliant, calm, confident), and openness to experience (perceptive, artistic, curious). From a theory perspective, this is a sound approach given the resounding support for the big-five in personality literature. Kyllonen (2013) argued that it was this framework's successful articulation of the personality space that facilitated the shift in understanding the importance of the affective domain. However, though the big-five model is popular among researchers in psychology, it is rarely used in educational practice to articulate the skills of incoming students.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A host of frameworks, usually tied to existing assessments, present academically contextualized skills, behaviors, and attitudes relevant to student success. In many cases, these models present general skill areas, each with more granular subskills. These include the recent work done with ETS' SuccessNavigator assessment (Markle, Olivera-Aguilar, Jackson, Noeth, &amp; Robbins, 2013) and ACT's Engage College Domains and Scales Overview(2013). Generally, the broader domains in these models are tied to those areas of the big-five personality theory that have been shown to most effectively relate to student success, including some combination of academic behaviors (e.g., study skills), motivation or commitment, self-regulation (e.g., emotional stability), and social connection.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">The models presented by ETS and ACT represent only two of a litany of affective frameworks in higher education. These efforts that focus on student success add to those aforementioned frameworks that outline affective student learning outcomes. Indeed, one of the challenges in this area has been the lack of a clear theory or structure that might help educators better understand and discuss these affective skills, especially given their novelty in the academic landscape.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Touch Points for Student Success</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Studying these affective factors has not only helped us better understand what affects success, but it has changed the way we view success itself. For decades of postsecondary research, the outcome of interest was primarily grade point average, though studies have increasingly focused on persistence and completion over the last several decades. Certainly, these two phenomena are inextricably linked, but research has shown differences in the factors that underlie each (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004; Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In addition, there recently has been a large amount of attention paid to the early course placement and developmental education sequence, particularly in the community college sector. Interestingly, this attention has arisen from research, practice, and policy sectors, with each identifying low rates of success for those students who are placed into developmental courses (Bailey, Jeong, &amp; Cho, 2008; Scott-Clayton, 2012). Obviously, course placement is just one point along the continuum of student success, but recent studies have suggested that it is a critically important point.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In the next sections, we discuss these three phenomena—course placement, academic success (i.e., grades), and persistence behavior—including the research into each area, relevant noncognitive factors, and effective practices to improve each outcome.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Course Placement and Developmental Education</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Recent studies have cited both the abysmal rates of success in developmental education and the need to consider revolutionary changes to the way we place students into early college courses and address deficits in academic achievement (e.g., Bailey, Jeong, &amp; Cho, 2010; Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012). It is almost certain that the most effective means of improving developmental education will involve a combination of efforts, but some of the suggested steps include increasing support for students placed into developmental courses (e.g., Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012); redesigning the structure of developmental courses (e.g., Edgecomb, 2011; Twigg, 2011); increasing the alignment between secondary curricula, placement tests, and college curricula (e.g., Brown &amp; Niemi, 2007; Brudman, 2012; Conley, 2008); and improving methods of placement testing (Boylan, 2009; Burdman, 2012; Collins, 2008; Conley, 2007; </span><span style="background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Levine-Brown, Bonham, Saxon, &amp; Boylan, 2008); Saxon, Levine-Brown, &amp; Boylan, 2008).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Among all these possible solutions to the developmental education issue, holistic assessment, acceleration, and course redesign have likely received the most attention in terms of research, practice, and policy. In addition, these areas are also where affective factors have the most relevance.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Innovations in developmental education.</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> Given that the assessment of student readiness and likelihood for success is the first step in the process, considering revisions here is a logical place to start. Currently, </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">there are two traditional standardized placement tests that are used to make the vast majority of placement decisions: the ACCUPLACER<sup>®</sup>, developed by the College Board, is used at 62 percent of community colleges, and the COMPASS<sup>®</sup>, developed by ACT, Inc., is used at 46 percent (Primary Research Group, 2008). At most institutions, these assessments are the sole determinants of student placement.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Some (e.g., Burdman, 2012) question the validity of existing placement tests. </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Others have noted </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">(e.g., Conley, 2007) that academic achievement is only one of the many skills that indicate a student's likelihood of success in early college courses. Indeed, as the aforementioned meta-analyses have shown, many factors contribute to students' academic success. Thus, in attempting to determine where students should be placed in order to maximize their success, traditional placement tests might best be described as <em>insufficient</em>, rather than <em>invalid</em>, indicators. Accordingly, many states, including Florida, have recently passed legislation either limiting the use of placement tests (see Fain, 2013) or requiring multiple measures to be considered in placement decisions (e.g., California Student Success Task Force, 2012).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A second innovation is the redesign of developmental courses and curricula. Under traditional placement models, some students are required to take as many as four semesters of remedial courses before entering college-level (i.e., credit-bearing) coursework. Given this long and arduous path to a degree, some have argued the merits of shortening the sequence through course acceleration—placing students into higher level courses whenever possible—accompanied by co-curricular supports (Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Others have proposed various means of curricular restructuring and redesign for early math and English courses. Here, we refer to curricular restructuring as those efforts that use traditional pedagogical methods but not the traditional course structure (i.e., three credit hours, fifteen weeks). One example is the co-requisite model, in which students with deficiencies in academic achievement are entered into college-level courses, but are also required to take an additional section that allows for supplementary instruction time. Initial research has shown these efforts to be quite effective with regard to course completion and long-term success in both math and writing (<span style="background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Adams, Gerhart, Miller, &amp; Roberts, 2009; </span>Bragg, 2009; </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT">Brancard, Baker, &amp; Jensen, 2006</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">We also refer to curricular redesign efforts as those that apply innovative pedagogical models, occurring either within or outside of the traditional course structure. Perhaps the most prominent example is the emporium model for math courses, developed at Virginia Tech. Here, students use a computer-based, self-paced model of learning rather than a traditional lecture setting. Twigg (2011) listed four reasons why the model has seen success:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students spend the bulk of their course time doing math problems rather than listening to someone talk about doing them" (p. 26).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students spend more time on things they don't understand and less time on things they have already mastered" (p. 26).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students get assistance when they encounter problems" (p. 27).</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">"Students are required to do math" (as opposed to not participating in class; p. 27).</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"></span><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">How can the assessment of affective factors be used to improve developmental education? </span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The most likely way in which the assessment of affective factors can improve developmental education is by better understanding students' likelihood for success. Efforts to broaden the measures used to assess students' readiness or likely success have taken several forms. In some cases, such as a multi-dimensional college readiness index proposed by the College Board (Wiley, Wyatt, &amp; Camera, 2010), this simply means the inclusion of additional indicators of academic achievement, such as high school grade point average or class rank. In other cases, sometimes referred to as holistic assessment, measures of affective factors as well as academic achievement are considered. Many have called for this holistic approach to be used in placing students into courses, (Boylan, 2009; Burdman, 2012; Conley, 2007; Levine-Brown, Bonham, Saxon, &amp; Boylan, 2008). Moreover, research has shown that noncognitive factors add significantly to the prediction of early course success and can be used to inform decisions about course acceleration (Markle et al., 2013). </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">In practice, affective factors have two points of relevance to improving developmental education. On one hand, they can be used to inform course placement decisions. In a traditional developmental sequence, institutions might want to select the best candidates for course acceleration into a higher course by identifying those students who are highly motivated, have strong organizational skills, and are willing to reach out for help when they encounter a problem. If an institution has several models of course delivery, affective factors could be used to identify which one best fits a student's individual strengths, though more research is needed in this area.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">The second point of relevance involves post-placement support. As mentioned, there has been increased focus on the need to provide co-curricular support for students after placement, regardless of their position in the developmental sequence (Complete College America, 2012; Scott-Clayton, 2012). Using an assessment of affective factors, institutions can identify which supports are necessary for each individual student. In some cases, these assessments can directly refer students to institutional resources or even provide their own tools and strategies (e.g., Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Additionally, affective factors might identify how faculty can engage with students in the classroom, particularly in redesigned courses and curricula. Consider the math emporium model. Students work independently and at their own pace, while the role of faculty shifts to one of support, particularly when a student encounters difficulty. Using affective assessment, faculty members might understand their students' tendency to seek help and more proactively engage with those who do so less often. There is limited, if any, extant research on the role of affective factors in these redesigned courses, both in terms of predicting success and understanding the learning process, though this should be an area of future exploration.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Early Academic Success</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Looking beyond just entry-level math and English courses, the grades that students earn early in their college career, represented by either first-semester or first-year GPA, are the most widely studied indicator of academic success in educational research. Grades are important to consider for two reasons. First, we want to ensure that students are actually acquiring the knowledge and skills that are conveyed by a college degree or certificate. Even though grades are often criticized for their lack of reliability and multidimensional nature (e.g., Allen, 2005; Brookhart, 1993; Burke, 2006), they are by far the most prevalent indicator of learning available. Second, grades play an important part in understanding persistence behavior. Directly speaking, students cannot progress toward a degree without successfully completing courses with passing grades. Grades have also been shown to mediate the effect of other factors, such as motivation, academic achievement, and family income on degree attainment (Allen &amp; Robbins, 2010).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A host of studies have examined which factors, among the wide array of academic and psychosocial variables, are most relevant to academic success. Poropat (2009) conducted a meta-analysis looking at the ability of the big-five personality dimensions and intelligence to predict academic performance. Of these possible predictors, he found only conscientiousness and intelligence to be significant predictors of academic performance in college, interestingly with roughly equal predictive strength. Richardson, Abraham, and Bond (2012) also used a meta-analytic approach, looking at a much wider array of personality, affective, and psychological factors in predicting academic performance in college. They, too, found indicators of intelligence or academic achievement to be relevant, along with a host of other factors including conscientiousness, academic self-efficacy, performance self-efficacy, effort regulation, time/study management, test anxiety (negatively related), and a strategic approach to learning. Finally, another meta-analysis by Robbins et al. (2004) found achievement motivation and academic self-efficacy, as well as academic achievement, to be significant predictors of GPA.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Overall, these studies find that the most relevant predictors of GPA tend to be academic achievement and factors related to conscientiousness—organization behaviors, motivation, and adaptive learning strategies. These findings are likely not surprising. What might be interesting, however, is the lack of other factors appearing on this list. Many of the social (e.g., institutional commitment) and self-regulatory (e.g., stress management) factors that are well known to many educators are absent.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">There are at least two hypotheses to explain this absence of findings. One is the global nature of meta-analytic research. These studies attempt to generate one relationship across multiple studies and thousands of students. It is quite possible that these social and emotional factors are relevant, but only for a subset of students. Little research has examined the possibility of profiles that might suggest multiple paths to success (e.g., Markle &amp; Steinberg, 2013), and although approaches hold promise for understanding different sets of skills within the student population, these methods have not been widely applied.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A second explanation is the potential mediation of conscientiousness-related factors. Consider students who face significant challenges with regard to social connections or emotional regulation. For these students, if they do not overcome these hurdles, then succeeding in class will certainly be difficult. However, if they overcome these challenges and still do not effectively organize their time, complete assignments, and persist to complete their academic goals, academic success will still evade them. Thus, it could be said that these factors outside of the immediate academic experience are necessary, but not sufficient for success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, the question still remains about how these factors can not only be understood, but also used in order to improve student success. Here, the approach is similar to that in addressing developmental education. The first step is to consider affective factors in predicting student success. Several noncognitive assessments that are currently available provide composite indices that predict college grades and can be used to identify students with low probabilities of success. In this way, institutions can more intrusively engage with these students and provide them assistance before they encounter hurdles. The second step in this process is to then connect students with the appropriate co-curricular supports. Once again, several of the existing assessments can connect students with on-campus resources or provide embedded materials that focus on noncognitive skills.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Persistence Behavior</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">As institutions have increasingly shifted their focus to persistence and completion, researchers and practitioners alike have sought a better understanding of what drives student success. For many four-year institutions, increasing retention and graduation rates has simply meant attracting "better" students: those with higher standardized test scores, high school grades, or other indicators of academic achievement. However, this is a limited strategy for several reasons.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">For one, this simply isn't an option for most institutions. Community colleges and other open enrollment institutions do not have the same liberty with admissions criteria as other schools. What's more, community colleges in particular are driven to provide access and education to a wide array of students, regardless of academic achievement. For all these reasons, simply "having better students" is not a practical option.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Interestingly, admitting only highly qualified students<span style="color:red"> </span>may also be the wrong approach. In 2004, Steven Robbins and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis using a large collection of studies that included students from both two-year and four-year institutions. They considered an array of predictors, including standardized test scores, high school GPA, and noncognitive factors, and their relation to both grades and retention through the first year of college. In predicting grades, standardized test scores contributed the most to the model, with factors such as academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation also contributing to the model. However, when predicting retention, standardized test scores had the lowest predictive value of any variable in the model, with noncognitive factors such as academic goals, institutional commitment, social support, and social involvement contributing significantly to<span style="color:red"> </span>the model. In this case, traditional notions of academic achievement were strong predictors of academic success, but noncognitive factors were stronger predictors of persistence.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">This is not to suggest that academic achievement is unimportant. A study by Porchea, Allen, Robbins, and Phelps (2010) tracked a large, multi-institutional group of community college students over five years. The authors were able to follow students over this time even as they transferred to other institutions. Not surprisingly, they found a host of predictors, including academic achievement, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, and institutional characteristics, to be significant predictors of degree attainment.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, determining the relative importance of academic and noncognitive factors is perhaps a moot exercise. From a practical perspective, it is critical to understand that both academic achievement and affective factors play important roles in student learning and persistence. Indeed, there are many paths to success, and accordingly, many combinations of skills that might allow a student to persist to a degree. Once again, determining profiles of student skills might be helpful for both understanding risk and identifying interventions, but research is still required to obtain a more granular and nuanced understanding of these different sets of skills and how they are related to success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Key Developments in Assessing Affective Factors</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">While educators have always recognized the importance of noncognitive factors in the success of students, they have not always known how to create programs and practices to integrate these factors with what they know about the cognitive domain. In some cases, where they have embraced and experimented with programs and practices reflecting the affective domain, they have not been supported by leaders, policies, and resources. There was a great deal of enthusiasm in the 1960s and 1970s for T-Groups and Encounter Groups, meditation, and Personal Development Courses that directly addressed the noncognitive dimensions of human nature, but today there are only remnants of these creative approaches remaining in curricula.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">However, with new research, new assessments, and new commitments to increasing retention and completion rates, there is a resurgence of interest among leading practitioners and college leaders in how we can improve and expand the learning of students by applying what we know about the noncognitive domain. In the following section we describe briefly three efforts to implement various programs and practices based on noncognitive factors.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Revamping developmental education. </span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Chaffey College in California has been experimenting for several years with assessing noncognitive factors and improving course placement and student success. Laura Hope and her colleagues at Chaffey have been working with Gallup Education Practice to experiment with Gallup's Hope Scale to determine its value for improving assessment and course placement. The Hope Scale is a key part of the assessment process and is an extension of the Basic Skills Transformation at Chaffey which placed a tremendous value on the students' capacity to construct learning, especially if they were motivated.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In 2011, Chaffey began collecting data using the Hope Scale and, to date, has assessed approximately 10,000 students, becoming Gallup's laboratory for collecting data on hope on community college students. In 2013, the college also added a Mindset Scale, derived from Carol Dweck's work, to the assessment battery, assessing roughly 3,000 students. As part of the Basic Skills Transformation, the English curriculum was entirely overhauled from eleven courses in English and reading to three courses. Now that the new curricula are in place, the college is validating potential uses of the Hope Scale so that it can be added as one of the background measures for placement. Mindset will likely be added as a background metric as well, placing students in higher-level courses if their assessments indicate high hope and a growth mindset.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">"It is our hypothesis that behavior is not only an extension of hope and mindset, but, more importantly, if we can help students behave in ways that are consistent with a high hope/growth mindset, we can help to influence their hope and mindset. So rather than just focusing on influencing the cognitive, behavioral reinforcement can influence the cognitive factors that generate hope/mindset behavior" (Hope, 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Chaffey College staff are currently working on how to make these data actionable for placement and other purposes. The college will explore how to improve the placement process to ensure greater success in courses, as well as how to expand and improve students' noncognitive factors as related factors in overall success. College leaders also plan to disaggregate the data by demographics to determine how these affective factors function within unique populations as one avenue for improving the college's equity agenda.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">An institutionwide plan for student success.</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> Miami Dade College, as part of its Completion by Design initiative with the Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, is creating a comprehensive, holistic initiative to improve retention and completion rates for one of the largest and most diverse colleges in the U. S. In early phases of the initiative, the Student Support System will be re-engineered to include:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Structured pre-admissions processes, including deadlines, structured information systems, test preparation, and early engagement;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Holistic assessment of academic skill gaps, including noncognitive and career interest assessments;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Strategic, mandatory orientation, including ongoing and study-focused orientations;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Intrusive and mandatory advisement based on collaboration between student services and faculty;</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Completion of each student's academic plan, including course selection and appropriate course sequences.</span></li> </ul> <p> <span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;"></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The college is experimenting with two assessments of affective behavior as a key foundation to support this student success initiative.</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> As part of the restructured intake process, students are required to complete a noncognitive assessment battery prior to attending their respective campus orientation. Students are also required to meet with their assigned advisor during their first term to review their noncognitive assessment results, discuss career options, and complete their student success pathway. Campus advisement teams have developed cross-walks matching various noncognitive factors with services at the specific campuses.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">The college is also beginning to experiment with assessments to identify students who are at-risk, provide resources to students based on needs, and use data to guide programming and outreach to promote student success. Although the college is still in early stages of development and implementation, some promising results are beginning to emerge. For example, over 1,300 students enrolled in test preparation courses in reading, writing, and math. Diagnostic assessments were offered to the test prep participants followed by modularized instruction based on students' performance. Of the students participating in the program, over 50 percent advanced their course placement by at least one level.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">An emerging model: SuccessNavigator</span></strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">. Recent research at Educational Testing Service (ETS) has produced a new assessment that allows for efforts like those at Chaffey and Miami Dade and at other institutions. The new tool, SuccessNavigator<sup>TM</sup>, provides scores in four broad areas: academic skills, commitment, self-management, and social support. Comprised of roughly 100 items, it takes about 30 minutes to complete, and can be taken at orientation, during placement testing, in a student success course, or even outside the institution on a student's personal computer. Integrating noncognitive scores with indicators of academic achievement (e.g., placement or admissions test scores, high school GPA), the assessment can be used to identify students' likelihood for success, facilitate advising, or improve course placement decisions. Launched in the summer of 2013, SuccessNavigator has already been administered in more than 100 colleges and universities throughout the U.S., including a wide array of institutions - public and private, 2 and 4-year, urban and rural.</span></p> <p class="MsoPlainText"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">SuccessNavigator contains several characteristics that any assessment-based institutional effort must contain. First, the measure supports reliable, valid, and fair inferences about students' noncognitive factors and likely success. Second, it provides immediate, interpretable student-level scores to both students and advisors. Third, and perhaps most importantly, it provides feedback and action plans, as well as references to campus resources, so that students and those who work with them have actionable information that can mediate risk and improve student success (for more information, see Markle et al., 2013).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Throughout the research and development of SuccessNavigator, several institutions have demonstrated various ways that noncognitive assessment can be used to structure interactions with students. At Wilbur Wright College in Chicago, the use of noncognitive assessments to inform course placement decisions was explored in a large pilot program. Students whose placement test scores were near the cut score for a higher level course and who demonstrate a strong profile of noncognitive skills can be accelerated into the higher level of course—shortening their path to success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">At the University of New Mexico, the SuccessNavigator framework has been used to not only structure work with students, but to understand the relationships between various co-curricular services and these critical noncognitive skills. After UNM mapped each program and service to at least one noncognitive area, they developed an inventory of co-curricular resources, as well as a map that can be used to guide advisors. When a student scores low in a given area, advisors now know the full breadth of resources on campus that a student can engage with to develop that skill.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ultimately, however, SuccessNavigator exemplifies that no assessment is valuable in and of itself, but rather it is the use of that assessment that determines how effective it will be. By using assessment data, college staff can systematically identify students' strengths and challenges. By aligning noncognitive factors to campus resources, institutions have mechanisms in place to act on that information. Finally, by creating systems like intrusive advising and mandatory orientation, colleges establish mechanisms that can engage students proactively, rather than waiting for students to reach out for the support they need.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Conclusion</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">In the final analysis, college and student success do not rely on changes in assessment practices alone. The challenge to improve college and student success is much more complex and requires a comprehensive approach to reform. If we expect to see changes in indicators like retention and graduation rates, we all must do something extra, or something different; otherwise, we are simply following the adage of continuing the same behavior and expecting different results. What we have tried to emphasize here is the comprehensive nature of that reform. How we place and instruct students in early courses is certainly an important aspect of success, but it is only one aspect, and each of these aspects<span style="color:red"> </span>faces significant hurdles.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">For example, recommendations from a study by Hodara, Jaggars, and Karp (2012), which examined practices and programs in community colleges across the country, outline the scope and difficulty that community colleges face with regard to placing students:</span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Administer placement exams in high schools.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Align high school exit and college entry standards.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Increase alignment between exams and college-level course content.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Provide opportunities for students to take practice exams.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Implement multiple measures, including affective measures.</span></li> <li><span style="font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; text-indent: -0.25in;">Create consistent standards and assessments across the state.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">These efforts require substantive collaboration across educational levels, systems, and institutions; and building consensus in these climates is never easy. Yet this represents only those challenges in placing students, and doesn't speak to the remaining life cycle of student success.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">With regard to curricular redesign and restructuring, institutions will need to work with faculty as they adapt to these models, often changing from the sage on the stage to the guide on the side. More involved advising efforts will now force institutions to reconsider the ways in which they engage with students, reaching out to those who need support and not just serving those who ask for it.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">These are formidable challenges for all institutions of higher education, but many colleges and universities are beginning to face these challenges and to make progress in improving retention and completion rates of their students. In this paper, we have argued for the inclusion of noncognitive assessments as part of the package of tools higher education can use to better place students in courses, better advise students on their journeys, and better help staff and students make decisions based on a more holistic approach to improving and expanding student learning and success. 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(2010). <em>Exploring the intersection of science education and 21st century skills: A workshop summary. </em>Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">National Research Council. (2011). <em>Assessing 21st century skills: Summary of a workshop</em>. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">National Research Council. (2012). <em>Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century</em>. 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Predictors of long-term enrollment and degree outcomes for community college students: Integrating academic, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational factors. <em>The Journal of higher education</em>,<span> </span><em>81</em>(6), 750-778.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five factor model of personality and academic performance. <em>Psychological Bulletin, 135</em>, 322-338.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Reese, W. J. (2001). The origins of progressive education.<span> </span><em>History of Education Quarterly</em>,<span> </span><em>41</em>(1), 1-24.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Richardson, M., Abraham, C., &amp; Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. <em>Psychological Bulletin, 138, </em>353-387.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., &amp; Carlstrom, A. (2004). Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. <em>Psychological Bulletin, 130</em>, 261-288.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Robbins, S., Oh, I., Le, H., &amp; Button, C. (2009). Intervention effects on college performance and retention as mediated by motivational, emotional, and social control factors: Integrated meta-analytic path analyses. <em>Journal of Applied Psychology, 94</em>, 1163-1184.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Roberts, B. W., Walton, K., &amp; Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.<span> </span><em><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Psychological Bulletin</span></em><span> </span><strong><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">132</span></strong>, pp. 1-25.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Saxon, D. P., Levine-Brown, P., &amp; Boylan, H. R. (2008). Affective assessment for developmental students, part 1.<span> </span><em>Research in Developmental Education</em>, <em>22</em>(1), 1-4.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills [SCANS]</span><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">. 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Retrieved from </span><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><a href="http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?UID=1026">http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?UID=1026</a></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Strayhorn, T. L. (2006). <em>Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes</em>. Washington, DC: Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size:8.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hypothesis: There is hope<em>. </em>In Snyder, C. R. (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theories, measures, and applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Tough, P. (2013).<span> </span><em>How children succeed</em>. New York, NY: Random House.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Twigg, C. A. (2011). The math emporium: Higher education's silver bullet. <em>Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning</em>,<span> </span><em>43</em>(3), 25-34.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">van der Linden, D., te Nijenhuis, J., &amp; Bakker, A. B. (2010). The general factor of personality: A meta-analysis of Big Five intercorrelations and a criterion-related validity study.<span> </span><em>Journal of Research in Personality</em>,<span> </span><em>44</em>(3), 315-327.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Weinstein, G., &amp; Fantini, M. D. (1970). <em>Toward humanistic education: A curriculum of affect</em>. New York: </span><span style="font-size:8.0pt; font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Praeger Publishers.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Wiley, A., Wyatt, J., &amp; Camara, W. J. (2010).<span> </span><em>The development of a multidimensional college readiness index</em>. (Research Report 2010-3). New York, NY: The College Board.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Yeager, D. S., &amp; Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They're not magic. <em>Review of Educational Research, 81</em>(2), 267-301.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Ross Markle is a </span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">Senior Research and Assessment Advisor in the Higher Education Division at </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: windowtext;"><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/company/educational-testing-service-ets?trk=ppro_cprof">Educational Testing Service (ETS)</a></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family: &quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">.</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> Terry O'Banion is President Emeritus of the League for Innovation in the Community College, a Senior League Fellow, and Chair of the Graduate Faculty at National American University.</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Opinions expressed in</span></em><span><em><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;"> </span></em></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: #666666; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-size: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-position: initial; background-repeat: initial;">Learning Abstracts<span><em> </em></span><em><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi">are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</span></em></span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"></span></p> Kansas College Pushes Self-Service Registration urn:uuid:520264A3-1422-1766-9AA5529E4EB018E2 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Johnson County Community College shoots for 100 percent online registration success.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/showcase.gif" alt="Innovation Showcase" /></p> <p>November 2014, Volume 9, Number 11</p> <p><em>By Diane Carroll</em></p> <p>Two years ago, when online registration opened for fall classes at <a href="http://www.jccc.edu/" target="_blank">Johnson County Community College</a> (JCCC), the computer system slowed to a crawl and the telephone lines crashed.</p> <p>Not the kind of spring morning that anyone wanted at the college, which serves nearly 20,000 students each fall in Overland Park, Kansas, part of the Kansas City metropolitan area.</p> <p>The trouble was the timing. When registration opened at 8:00 a.m., students rushed to sign up for classes at the same time that hundreds of staffers were turning on their computers to start their day. The systems couldn’t handle the load.</p> <p>This spring, the Registrar’s office and Information Services took a new tack: They opened online registration in the evening—at 9:00 p.m.—when few people were using the college computers. They also pursued a new goal: to provide a self-service process that would be 100 percent successful. They wanted to set up the process so well that everyone who was registering could do so quickly and all on their own without the need to call anyone at the college for assistance. </p> <p>“The switch was flipped and within 10 minutes, more than 1,200 students flew into full registration mode, classes were selected and enrollment was completed,” said Dennis Day, Vice President for Student Success and Engagement. “By midnight, almost 2,400 students had participated and JCCC nearly hit a 100 percent participation mark with no alternative support.” </p> <p>Only 44 people called the Help Desk, and most of them just needed help to sign in.“We were full out prepared for complete disaster this time but from what we saw it did go very smoothly,” said Registrar Leslie Quinn. “It was a tremendous joint effort.” </p> <p>The college had offered self-service enrollment before, Day said, but the spring effort was the first to aim for 100 percent participation. </p> <p>“Most companies and institutions that offer self-service are happy with 70 or 80 percent participation,” he said. “But students are very digital now and think they should be able to get whatever they want online.”</p> <p>Day and Quinn said they believe the effort succeeded because of the preparation that was put into it.</p> <p>The effort was heavily marketed. Students understood that they needed to be prepared if they wanted first dibs on classes. They had to make sure in advance that they had completed any prerequisites and that all of their fees had been paid. In getting the word out, students also were advised that they could choose to wait to register until 8:00 a.m. the next day when assistance would be available.</p> <p>The next morning, only two people were in line for registration assistance. </p> <p>In prior years, there had been long lines, with some students arriving as early as 4:00 a.m.; many of those students would have been skipping their early classes to register. This year, they were in class as they should have been.</p> <p>“I think it’s a great convenience for students to allow them to register when they want to as opposed to when you make them,” Day said.</p> <p>For more information, contact <a href="mailto:dday@jccc.edu">Dennis Day</a>, Vice President for Student Success and Engagement at Johnson County Community College.</p> <p><em>Diane Carroll is a Staff Writer at Johnson County Community College.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in</em><em> </em>Innovation Showcase<em> </em><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> NACCTEP: Revolutionizing Community College Teacher Education Programs urn:uuid:5205C909-1422-1766-9A87F33CD5AC2297 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Join the National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs for their national conference in Boston, March 2015.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p align="center"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-11_nacctep.png" alt="" height="150" /></p> <p>Join the National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs (NACCTEP) at the <em>Revolutionizing Community College Teacher Education Programs </em>national conference March 6-8, 2015, at the Boston Marriott Copley Place. As our role in training teachers grows and budgets shrink, let us remember to utilize our most valuable resource—each other. <br /><br /> Learn about quality programs that are developing future teachers and enhancing the skills of practicing educators. <em>Revolutionizing</em> is the perfect opportunity to connect and network with colleagues and partners who share your passion for teacher education.<br /><br /> Visit the <a href="http://nacctep.riosalado.edu/_Conferences/2015_Boston/Index.html" target="_blank">NACCTEP conference website</a> for additional information.<br /><br /> <a href="http://nacctep.riosalado.edu/new/home.html" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about NACCTEP, a League for Innovation Bronze Corporate Partner.</p> Member Spotlight: Midland College urn:uuid:52071BB7-1422-1766-9A6D17E3DD0B7BC2 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Midland College science students participate in national and international summer research projects.<strong></strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><strong>Midland College Science Students Participate in Research Projects</strong></p> <p><em>By Rebecca Bell</em></p> <p><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-11_member_midland.jpg" alt="" hspace="12" width="253" height="168" align="left" />Thanks to a $22,500 grant provided by ExxonMobil Foundation, <a href="http://www.midland.edu/" target="_blank">Midland College</a> (MC) will be able to establish the Midland College Water Monitoring Center, directed by Mr. Greg Larson, faculty member in Biology. Mr. Larson is an authority on water quality in the Pecos River, having worked for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) as a field biologist specializing in this area for 23 years. </p> <p>ExxonMobil is providing the funding through its 2013 Educational Matching Gift Program. The donation represents a 3-to-1 match of donations made to the Midland College Foundation by ExxonMobil employees, retirees, and surviving spouses.</p> <p>In a letter to MC President, Dr. Steve Thomas, ExxonMobil Foundation President, Suzanne M. McCarron, wrote, “The ExxonMobil Foundation is working to improve U.S. math and science education by supporting programs that benefit both students and teachers.”</p> <p>The Midland College Water Monitoring Center program will accept up to five people per year to participate as student researchers. The students’ research will consist of collecting field samples and then analyzing these surface water samples for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity (salinity), and water flow rate. Once analyzed in the field, these samples will be sent for laboratory analysis at the International Boundary Water Commission. The results of this laboratory analysis will be sent back to Midland College, where students can use the results in future research studies. Additionally, MC will partner with TCEQ to build a database on water quality in the Pecos River. </p> <p>MC Dean of Math and Science, Dr. Margaret Wade, said, “The water monitoring project is our newest faculty-led research project. During the past several years, Midland College students have had the opportunity to participate in several research projects, including ones centering on chemistry, genetics, and geology. The funds provided by ExxonMobil will enable us to add another important research component to our curriculum.” </p> <p>In 2014, two MC research students were chosen to participate in The University of Texas Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) summer research programs. Matthew (Staley) Anderson<strong> </strong>and Alberto Lozano were selected through an in-depth application process to participate in intensive research experiences, working alongside nationally- and internationally-recognized professors. Each student spent 10 weeks this summer conducting supervised research, attending research group and lab meetings, and participating in special meetings designed to help them with future educational and career goals.</p> <p>Lozano attended the University of Texas at Austin doing research in mechanical engineering. Anderson was among a select group of ten students conducting research in biochemistry at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zürich, Switzerland (ETH Zürich). He is one of only two community college students selected for the international research program. Last summer, Anderson participated in the LSAMP summer research program at The University of Texas at El Paso.</p> <p>Both Lozano and Anderson are considered nontraditional students, being a few years older than most college students. Lozano is a U.S. Navy veteran. He has been attending Midland College for two years. He plans to transfer to The University of Texas at Austin where he will major in mechanical engineering.</p> <p>Anderson, age 32, spent eight years working in the oil and gas industry before enrolling at Midland College. He is currently participating in the Midland College-Sul Ross State University (SRSU) Science Initiative. He will be able to complete a bachelor’s degree in biology with a minor in chemistry from SRSU while staying in Midland. His goal is to graduate in December 2014 or May of 2015. Anderson’s future plans include attending graduate school and eventually obtaining a doctorate in chemistry.</p> <p>Anderson stated, “MC is a really great school with a tremendous amount of opportunity. All of the teachers have shown a genuine interest in my success. I can honestly say that the trajectory of my life has been completely altered—in a good way—by my attending Midland College.”</p> <p>This summer, Anderson worked with Dr. Markus Aebi at ETH Zürich’s Institute of Microbiology. The focus of the research was N-linked protein glycosylation and the interaction of fungi with predators and parasites. </p> <p>During his time at MC, Anderson has been a leader in various student organizations. He is currently president of Midland College’s Chemistry Club and recently presented his summer research at the American Chemical Society Conference in Dallas. Also at MC, Anderson participates in undergraduate research with Chemistry Professor Dr. Thomas Ready on sulfonium salts and antimicrobial agents.</p> <p>Ready said, “I am extremely proud of both of these students. These summer research opportunities are the result of discipline and hard work. I know that their summer experiences will prove to be extremely valuable and help them succeed at rewarding careers.”</p> Member Spotlight: Tallahassee Community College urn:uuid:52085A60-1422-1766-9A5AA071EF7D3A4F 2014-11-01T07:11:52Z 2014-11-03T07:11:00Z <p>Tallahassee Community College’s new environmental institute focuses on education and training programs that reflect local biodiversity.<strong> </strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <table border="0" cellspacing="0" align="Center"> <tbody> <tr> <th scope="col"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-11_Member_Tallahassee.jpg" alt="" width="337" height="254" /></th> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Some might say that the most important part of <a href="https://www.tcc.fl.edu/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Tallahassee Community College’s</a> (TCC) new Wakulla Environmental Institute (WEI) is already complete. After all, the breathtaking natural spaces that define TCC’s recently acquired 158-acre property in rural Wakulla County, Florida, are destined to become the institute’s most widely used classrooms. Nevertheless, it was with great excitement that the college broke ground for the institute’s first building in April of 2013. </p> <p>TCC President Jim Murdaugh and WEI Director Bob Ballard—with the help of TCC trustees and local and state dignitaries—celebrated the milestone before a crowd of more than 200. The college’s main campus is in more populous Leon County, and although TCC already operates a small service center in Wakulla County, the college’s leadership has long sought ways to expand TCC’s presence in Wakulla in a manner that fits the character of the community. </p> <p>The institute will focus on education and training programs that reflect the vast biodiversity of the region, which borders the Gulf of Mexico and is home to numerous rivers, springs, and other natural attractions. The facility will formally open to students in January of 2015 and is slated to offer associate degrees and college-credit certificates in hospitality and tourism management, aquaculture management, parks and leisure services technology, agribusiness management, and more. Instruction will be provided online in conjunction with outdoor field training. The institute already offers an associate’s degree in environmental science technology and a water quality technician certificate through TCC’s existing Wakulla Center and will also host noncredit programs, such as Green Guide Certification. The college plans to build energy efficient buildings that will be in keeping with the institute’s focus on conservation.</p> <p>One purpose of the institute is to promote the economic development of Wakulla County, which has been hit hard by the economic downturn, the Gulf oil spill, and declines in oyster and other fisheries. The hope is that WEI will increase Wakulla County’s share of the growing ecotourism market and assist local residents in transitioning from traditional fishery-related employment to new jobs focused on the natural heritage of their community.<br /> The institute recently graduated 10 oyster fishermen (and women) from a new program designed to help them learn oyster farming techniques. Oyster aquaculture has the potential to offer a more stable source of income than fishing does, and Wakulla County’s coastal region is ideal habit for the tasty shellfish. </p> <p>“This has the potential to revitalize the local oyster industry,” said Ballard. “Farmed oysters help fertilize wild oysters, they encourage sport fish, and they are tremendous cleaners of the environment. Just a small parcel of land can house thousands of cages, which can produce hundreds of thousands of oysters.”</p> <p>The TCC Foundation is providing microloans to students so they can purchase the equipment they will need for the class, along with 100,000 oyster spat (larvae) per student. Once they graduate, students will keep the equipment and be ready to start farming. </p> <p>Another innovation is an introductory professional diving course now being offered by WEI. The 16-week course targets students who wish to extend their skills in compressed-gas diving in order to support their work as research scientists or underwater crime scene technologists, or who seek a career in teaching diving or running a dive store or dive boat. <br /> Among future opportunities will be the eventual diving exploration of the natural cave system and sinkholes that run under the WEI campus, possibly linking the campus to the Gulf of Mexico.</p> Changing to Meet the Needs of Regional Economic Development urn:uuid:52042194-1422-1766-9AEBE92C5DD1826E 2014-11-01T05:11:00Z 2014-11-03T12:11:00Z <p>Community colleges meet the needs of industry partners with new approaches to workforce education.<strong></strong></p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/leadership_abstracts.gif" alt="Leadership Abstract" /></p> <p>November 2014, Volume 27, Number 11<br /> <em></em></p> <p>This issue of <em>Leadership Abstracts</em> is an excerpt from the League publication, <em><a href="/publication/files/Regional_Economic_Prosperity.pdf">The Role of Community Colleges in Regional Economic Prosperity</a></em>, Anne M. Kress and Gerardo E. de los Santos, editors.</p> <p><em>By Anne M. Kress</em></p> <p>In the past few years, as the difficulties facing the economy deepened, community colleges have been at the center of the national and regional dialogue about moving displaced workers back into the workforce. Even more recently, as the number of recent college graduates unable to find employment increased and the skills gap between those seeking employment and those seeking employees seems to be widening, community colleges have become the gateway to meaningful jobs and high tech careers. Our colleges have met the challenges inherent in both roles because—long after others have changed their focus—we continued to invest in an essential part of our mission: training the local workforce. We knew that even in the midst of high unemployment, employers continued to have difficulty filling highly technical positions and were gearing up in new industries, with new technologies, that would bring even greater demand for skilled workers. Community colleges have consistently focused on middle-skill positions, those that require an associate degree, postsecondary certificate, or vocational credential, and Monroe Community College (MCC), in Rochester, NY, has redoubled its efforts to meet the need of its industry partners for a strong and effective pipeline into the region’s middle-skilled workforce. In addition, the college played a central role in New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’s new model for economic development. As it has retooled its own focus on workforce education and moved forward the governor’s regional approach, MCC has become the regional hub for putting the community back to work.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>A Changed Context</strong></p> <p>According to the Center on Education and the Workforce at Georgetown University, in its landmark 2010 report, <em>Help Wanted: Projections of Jobs and Education Requirements Through 2018</em>, New York industries will create 756,000 job openings by 2018 that will require either an associate degree or some college. According to MCC’s analysis of annual openings, the ten-county region served by the college will produce over 13,500 openings in the middle-skilled sector. The positions span the entire array of local significant industry clusters, including advanced manufacturing, energy innovation, agriculture and food processing, health care and life sciences, and tourism and the arts.  </p> <p>As these figures suggest, opportunities for a skilled workforce are strong, suggesting a state and a region poised for economic recovery. However, the pipeline preparing students to take on these positions had thinned over the years as a result of multiple factors, but none as critical as a narrowing of high school focus. William Symonds, in <em>Pathways to Prosperity</em> (2011), argues that a “narrowly defined ‘college for all’ goal” (p. 7) has shortchanged both the American economy by weakening the workforce pipeline and American youth by denying them access to a more career-oriented educational path. He points to disinvestment nationwide in career and technical education that would lead high school students into advanced training and education directly related to workforce needs. The underlying narrative is a common one: The world has changed, but we have not kept pace.</p> <p>Locally, over the years, MCC saw the same pattern play out. Across its service county (Monroe), from the most successful school district to the least, counselors and parents downplayed career and technical education as unnecessary and outmoded in a college-going model. MCC’s industry partners have pointed consistently to a fundamental and distinct change in school districts over the years. In past practice, students were provided with a full array of alternatives—some of which led to four-year colleges and universities, others of which led to career and technical education and training offered by apprenticeship programs or community colleges. MCC’s own institutional history, as reflected in its programs and graduates, told the same story. For example, many of MCC’s most successful and distinguished alumni in fields from engineering to optics to manufacturing had passed through a single Rochester high school: Edison Tech. By 2009, the once vaunted institution was on the verge of a closure triggered by low enrollment and even lower success rates. Other school districts had cut or reduced career and technical programs, assigning them low-level vocational status that did not align with their current missions: to send students to four-year colleges. Somehow, the very real fact that today’s career and technical workforce—middle-skills workers—needed knowledge and training that only college could provide had gotten lost in the mix. Students were offered one college-ready diploma option, the Regents Diploma, which largely prevented them from taking career pathway courses. By the spring of 2012, the lack of career pathways for high school students had become such an issue for New York that the State Board Regents convened a special commission to study the need to restore this track for graduates. It had finally recognized the need to change.</p> <p><strong>A Changed Approach at MCC</strong></p> <p>That MCC hosted the Regents’ discussion on career pathways said much about how far the college itself had come on workforce education over the previous few years. Two of the directions given to MCC President Anne M. Kress when she took office in 2009 were to renew the college’s commitment to serving the workforce needs of its region and to reinvigorate its engagement with local business and industry. President Kress restructured the college administrative structure, splitting the large Academic Services into two manageable divisions, one of which would be central in MCC’s redefinition and reimaging of workforce development: the newly named Economic Development and Innovative Workforce Services division. The new organizational unit combined credit career and technical education, noncredit continuing workforce education, and grants, with a goal of finding synergies across these offices and programs to better serve the needs of the college and the community. For leadership, she hired a vice president with a proven track record and an entrepreneurial background, Todd Oldham.</p> <p>Over the past two years, the new division—which goes by the odd but memorable acronym EDWIS—has achieved extraordinary success because of its keen focus exclusively on workforce development. It blurs the standard academic silos of credit and noncredit; its aim is to help community members build skills and knowledge that lead directly to employment, a journey that may require credit instruction, noncredit training, or—most likely—some of both. A review of some of the most recent successes for the college and the division reveal a telling point; each has resulted from collaboration between MCC and the community, whether in the form of another public agency or private industry: </p> <ul> <li>MCC launched the Career Coach product at MCC, providing access to this dynamic, interactive tool for free to the community. Since its launch, MCC’s Career Coach has been adopted locally by Junior Achievement, which has built a curriculum around it; by BOCES (the vocational arm of New York high schools), which uses it as a student research tool; and by local guidance counselors, who use it in career counseling. MCC has also begun a no-cost one credit hour career exploration course for dislocated workers that makes extensive use of Career Coach; it is delivered in partnership with local community-based organizations at their sites.</li> <li>MCC secured a grant of $500,000 from the Corning Incorporated Foundation, and a matching grant of $250,000 from alumnus Jim Sydor of Sydor Optics, to expand MCC’s Optics Program. As part of this expansion, the college began a high school dual enrollment Optics program with two local schools, both serving underrepresented and at-risk populations.</li> <li>EDWIS partnered with the County of Monroe Industrial Development Agency to fund summer training programs for dislocated workers and unemployed youth in careers associated with advanced manufacturing. The success of these efforts led to a more permanent funding relationship between MCC and the agency, which is now directing workforce training dollars to the college to help local companies expand.</li> <li>MCC received a $250,000 grant from the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority to fund the Solar Thermal Auxiliary Resource Center (STAR), which gives students experience with the multiple technologies that support alternative energy careers. This grant was supplemented by an in-kind donation from Siemens. MCC is now the only community college in the state that offers students the opportunity to become certified solar technicians and installers. </li> <li>MCC was the lead institution on a 30- college SUNY-wide consortium that successfully competed for a Department of Labor TAA-CCCT grant, which will bring $14.6M to the state to build the workforce in all aspects of Advanced Manufacturing. The grant leveraged dozens of industry partnerships in support of the project, which drew Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis to MCC and will train thousands across New York.</li> </ul> <p>MCC’s scan of the economic development landscape revealed a simple truth: It had changed, and so had the needs of the immediate community. Thus, to serve the needs of business and industry and the needs of so many seeking employment, the college itself had to change how it did business. Soon, MCC was to learn that it was not alone in coming to the conclusion that, when it came to economic development, change was good.</p> <p><strong>A Changed Approach for New York</strong></p> <p>In 2011, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced he was taking a new approach to the state’s economic development efforts. No longer would they be centralized through a top-down, one-size-fits-all model that ignored the unique assets and challenges of each region across the state. Rather, he would convene 10 regional councils that represented the geographic, demographic, and economic diversity of New York. Each council would bring together community leaders from higher education, business, labor, agriculture, nonprofits, government, and community-based organizations to craft regional plans that would compete for a share of state economic development dollars. In the Finger Lakes region, the governor launched the Regional Economic Development Council (REDC) approach at Monroe Community College, and appointed President Anne M. Kress as a council member—recognition of the college’s own reinvented role in workforce development. He also asked the college to host all FLREDC meetings, which were to be overseen by Lt. Governor Robert Duffy (an MCC alumnus). </p> <p>Each council would be led by co-chairs from the business and academic communities, with the composition of membership mirroring exactly the type of public-private collaboration that the governor encouraged councils to incorporate into their regional strategies. This collaboration is not just a principle; in practice, it means that, to be considered, all proposed projects must bring significant leverage capital to the table.</p> <p>Leading the Finger Lakes effort are the heads of the region’s two largest employers, University of Rochester and Wegmans Food Markets. President Kress was asked to co-chair two workgroups that inform the 32- member council. These workgroups represent stakeholders from key industry sectors, including advanced manufacturing, energy innovation, agriculture and food processing, health care and life sciences, and tourism and the arts. The goal is to combine the voices of New York citizens with the evidence and data to develop locally responsive economic development plans that will help put New York back to work and reimagine the state’s business climate. The new, community-based model empowers each region to set plans and priorities based on its unique issues and opportunities. The state’s role then is to help regions carry out their customized and collaborative plans for development by aligning state resources and policies, eliminating unnecessary barriers to growth, and streamlining the delivery of government services and programs.</p> <p>By working together as a region, the nine counties in the Finger Lakes (Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Orleans, Seneca, Wayne, Wyoming, and Yates) were able to gain a deeper understanding of the area’s strengths, potential growth opportunities, and barriers to progress. Both the issues impacting economic growth and the points of pride that should drive a regional strategic plan came more clearly into focus.</p> <p>For example, many members came to the REDC table unaware of the notion of a middle-skill workforce, its importance to the region’s economy, and the central role community colleges play in responding to workforce needs. In discussions about the magnitude of the skills mismatch in the region’s labor supply, every workgroup reporting out cited a growing gap between supply and demand for middle-skill workers. With 18 colleges and universities, the Finger Lakes region had long prided itself on the quality of its workforce, but the regional discussions revealed that the mere production of college graduates did not mean that these graduates were in fields aligned to local workforce needs. Nationwide, the phrase skills gap has been coined to describe what we were seeing locally, and its implications for the Finger Lakes region were striking. </p> <p>The FLREDC found that by 2016, more than 13,500 middle-skill jobs would be created across the region’s industry sectors, according to data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. After reviewing the data around middle-skills concerns, the council reported to the governor two key findings:</p> <ul> <li>Middle-skill jobs make up the largest percentage of the state’s workforce, and regional demand for these employees is particularly acute in the advanced manufacturing, optics, and health care fields.</li> <li>The rapid pace of technological change, increasing global competitiveness, and growing industry demands for career-ready employees make a robust workforce training infrastructure an essential component of economic growth.</li> </ul> <p>The region then set forth three strategies to address these opportunities and challenges: </p> <ul> <li>Expand opportunities for the region’s employees and spur the creation of high-skill, high-wage jobs.</li> <li>Strengthen and develop education and training programs needed to provide employees with the skill sets for key growth industries.</li> <li>Address regional workforce shortages in health care, agriculture, information technology, manufacturing, and other key fields.</li> </ul> <p>In response, in year two of the Regional Councils, Kress co-chaired a workgroup specifically dedicated to addressing the workforce needs across the nine-county area. It included representatives from all levels of education, workforce investment boards, unions, and business and industry. The addition of this workgroup led to a new approach for the council. In its 2012 report, the Finger Lakes Regional Economic Development Council recommended funding for a new project to addressing the skills gaps in three fields: advanced manufacturing, health care, and skilled trades. This project, Multiple Pathways to Middle Skills Jobs, brought together a broad regional coalition reflective of the workgroup stakeholders. The group decided to target the pipeline issue head on by taking these careers to the public via three mobile learning labs, one per sector. The labs will be outfitted with equipment and technology to serve a dual purpose: (1) recruitment and public education; and (2) training for high school students and displaced workers. In the most recent round of New York State grant awards, this project was funded.</p> <p>Equally significant, in year two, The Finger Lakes REDC made an emphasis on workforce development the cornerstone of its plan, Accelerating Our Transformation, and of its presentation to New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, Lt. Governor Duffy, and a panel of state commissioners, who were tasked with judging all 10 state plans and making awards. The Finger Lakes region was awarded the largest pot of economic development funds in 2012, over $96M. </p> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td><span style="font-family: arial; font-size:9px;"> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>Symonds, W. (2011). Pathways to Prosperity, Harvard Graduate School of Education<a href="http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr12/vol69/num07/Pathways-to-Prosperity.aspx" target="_blank"> <span style="font-weight: normal;">http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr12/vol69/num07/Pathways-to-Prosperity.aspx</span></a></p> </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><em>Anne M. Kress is President of Monroe Community College in Rochester, New York.</em></p> <p> <em>Opinions expressed in</em><strong> </strong>Leadership Abstracts<strong> </strong><em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.</em><strong> </strong></p> Innovation Challenge urn:uuid:E6123CE1-1422-1766-9A39D30540146335 2014-10-06T01:10:43Z 2014-10-06T02:10:00Z <p>NSF invites community college teams to propose innovative STEM-based solutions for real-world problems.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <!-- .Red { color: #F00; } --> <p align="center"><img src="/publication/leagueconnections/images/2014-10_NSF_pic.png" alt="" width="624" height="75" /></p> <p><strong>Who:</strong> Teams of community college students, a faculty mentor and a community or industry partner.</p> <p><strong>What:</strong> Teams proposing innovative STEM-based solutions for real-world problems they identify within one of the following themes: Big Data, Infrastructure Security, Sustainability (including water, food, energy, environment), Broadening Participation in STEM, Improving STEM education.</p> <p><strong>When:</strong> September 15, 2014 to January 15, 2015</p> <p><strong>Where:</strong> Submit entries at <a href="http://www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge" target="_blank">www.nsf.gov/CCchallenge</a>. </p> <p><strong>Why:</strong> To foster the development of crucial innovation skills.</p> <table border="0" width="283" align="Center"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <h1><a class="Red" href="http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/goodbye?https://communitycollege.skild.com/skild2/CommunityCollege/registerLeader.action" target="_blank"><strong>Enter Today</strong></a></h1> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>More questions? Get updates on Twitter at #CCIChallenge or contact the team at <a href="mailto:InnovationChallenge@nsf.gov">InnovationChallenge@nsf.gov</a>.</p> <p><a href="http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp" target="_blank">Click here</a> to learn more about the National Science Foundation, a League for Innovation Bronze Corporate Partner.</p> Community College Voices in the National Completion Conversation urn:uuid:E73D5E05-1422-1766-9A95E87043E16FF1 2014-10-06T01:10:43Z 2014-10-07T03:10:00Z <p>Participants at the League's 2014 Learning Summit discuss the Completion Agenda and pose questions about the current emphasis on college completion.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p><img src="/publication/images/learning_abstracts.gif" alt="Learning Abstract" /></p> <p>October 2014, Volume 17, Number 10<strong> </strong></p> <p><em>By Participants in the League's 2014 Learning Summit</em></p> <p>Last summer, some 300 community college educators convened in Chandler, Arizona, to focus on learning. As participants in the League’s Learning Summit, these faculty, staff, and administrators engaged in roundtable discussions about the current national emphasis on college completion – the Completion Agenda. Facilitated by League Vice President for Learning and Research, Cynthia Wilson, the groups discussed definitions of completion, issues and challenges surrounding completion, and the promise of the Completion Agenda, and they posed questions about the current emphasis on completion. They recorded their conversations on flip chart paper, and this issue of <em>Learning Abstracts </em>presents the themes that emerged from the conversation records.</p> <p>This article presents an informal snapshot of themes identified in the collected responses of Learning Summit participants, with themes organized by the four questions asked during the session, and it may help stimulate similar discussions at local community colleges. The League’s <a href="/facultyvoices">Faculty Voices</a> project sponsored the session at the Learning Summit, and is one way for community college educators to become involved in the national conversation.<br /><br /> <strong>What Does Completion Mean to You?</strong><br /><br /> After a brief overview of the national completion focus, participants were asked four questions, the first of which was, “What does completion mean to you?” In their definitions of “completion,” two particularly strong themes emerged: (a) <em>students fulfilling their own goals</em>,and (2) <em>students earning credentials</em>. <br /><br /> <em>Students Fulfilling Their Own Goals. </em>The emphasis on individual student goals included broad comments such as “establishing educational goals and attaining them,”  “students accomplish what they came to do,” and “fulfill student’s holistic purposes, whatever that is.” Some definitions went further, providing specific examples: “academic and real work skills, personal growth,” “good grades, passed class, transfer,” “degree, experience, certificate,” and so on. One group broke down the list into components of the student experience, with completion points at ever step in the process: “students completing academic goals, with success at each increment: enrollment process, advisement, course completion, degree/certification, career” while others mentioned options such as learning a language or seeking education for career advancement. Since community colleges provide a wide variety of educational opportunities to a diverse student population, the focus on meeting individual student goals is not surprising. <br /><br /> <em>Students Earning Credentials. </em>The second major theme, students earning credentials, is fairly straightforward, with completion of a certificate or degree program and transfer to a four-year institution as the most frequently cited examples. For some participants, employment was also seen as a defining element in completion. These groups mentioned “employment in the field,” “gaining suitable employment,” “completion of program and gets the job,” “workforce preparedness,” and “employability,” in their definitions of completion.<br /><br /> <em>Other Approaches. </em>Some groups took different approaches, exploring distinctions in the meaning of completion by various stakeholder groups or considering the definition more philosophically. For example, given the prompt, “What does completion mean to you?” one group responded, “What Does Completion Mean to US?” with a list of 10 one-word answers: </p> <div> <table border="0" width="279"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="140">Fulfillment</td> <td width="129">Satisfaction</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Success</td> <td>Results</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Accomplishment</td> <td>Achievement</td> </tr> <tr> <td>An End</td> <td>Proud</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Recognition </td> <td>Triumph</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><strong>What Issues and Concerns Do You Have About the Completion Agenda?</strong><br /><br /> Learning Summit participants were asked to list issues, challenges, and concerns they had related to the national emphasis on completion. Responses were more varied in this and later questions, with major themes emerging around academic rigor and relevance, and student support. Other themes included student funding, institutional funding, employability, student preparedness, completion goals, data, and college-level challenges. These themes are briefly outlined below.<br /><br /><em>Academic Rigor and Relevance</em>. Participants expressed concern that the emphasis on completion would lead to a “degrading” of academic standards, particularly a “fear of compromising rigor so that more students will succeed,” or “decreasing standards perhaps to meet a goal.” Related to this concern was hastening students through programs, resulting in a “loss of personalized attention…just to get students through” and a “cycle of pushing students through the system.” The emphasis on completion also raised curriculum issues, including the relevance of classes; the possible narrowing of the curriculum; a reduction of the value of “human enrichment” and a concern that “lifelong learning is in conflict with completion”; the “integration of credit and non-credit”; a “fear of moving toward a high-stakes testing model” and “'teach to the test’ attitudes,” distinctions between training and education; and a question of completion “pushing higher education to a business model.”<br /> <em></em></p> <p><em>Student Support</em>. Participants were interested in ensuring that students receive adequate support as they pursue postsecondary education to completion, emphasizing guided pathways to help students set reasonable goals and provide assistance in attaining them throughout the student experience. Participants were also interested in the role of access in the push toward completion, listing among their concerns the need to reduce barriers and create bridges to access and completion; provide meaningful and sufficient advisement; offer flexibility in course options and scheduling; and provide sufficient training and support for students in online learning courses.<br /><br /><em>Student Preparedness</em>. The challenges faced by students who are underprepared for college-level classes were among the concerns listed by participants, stated by one group as, “We really need to figure out developmental education.” Participants raised issues of student costs, increased time to completion, the large number of students in developmental education, “moving students from developmental education into core classes,” and “problems with rushing students through.” One group asked, “Where’s the personal accountability—being prepared, committed?” <br /> <em></em></p> <p><em>Student Funding</em>. Concerns in this area primarily surrounded the affordability of higher education for community college students and prospective students, described by one group thus: “The reality of education and cost fights against the promise of the Completion Agenda.” Concerns were expressed about the availability of financial aid and the “huge debt burden [that] diminishes the value of a degree.” </p> <p><em>Institutional Funding</em>. Participants expressed concern about ways funding is tied to completion as well as the definition of completion used in funding models. One group noted there is “more concern over the colleges’ numbers or ‘bottom line’ than the students’ goals.” Concern was also expressed about a college rating system based on completion that would be used to determine funding.</p> <p><em>Employability</em>. Participants listed among their concerns the availability of jobs for students who complete certificate or degree programs, particularly as the number of graduates increases. They noted a disconnect between employer needs and the skills graduates possess, and that the pressure to find a career “ASAP” left “no room [for] exploration.”<br /><br /> <em>Driving the Agenda</em>. Some concern was expressed about the postsecondary education agenda being driven by external organizations that may be pushing their own agendas. Participants mentioned a lack of alignment between policy makers and implementers.<br /><em></em></p> <p><em>Defining Terms</em>. Some concern was expressed about the inconsistency of the definition for completion used by various stakeholders in the national completion conversation. Some groups expressed concern about a lack of consideration for the “relationship between completion and success” and the limitations in the definition if “success=completion.”<br /><br /> <em>Completion Goals</em>. Participants raised questions about the goals associated with the Completion Agenda, expressing concern that failure to increase completion rates “adds to internal stress by increasing demands” and “gives incentives to pressure students into degree programs.” Comments in this theme echo others concerning a need to focus on student goals and the distinctions between community college and four-year institution missions and students. Participants expressed concern that “completion rates focus on available data, not long-term success”; “completion does not necessarily focus on retention”; and that the postsecondary experience will mirror the “same pressure that K-12 has experienced.” One group asked if completion is, “Panacea or more complex problem?”</p> <p> <em>Data</em>. Learning Summit participants included data in their lists of issues and concerns, focusing on the importance of designing ways to quantify and track completion that consider student intent, student learning, appropriate metrics, the definition of completion in the community college context, and the ethics surrounding efforts “to make statistics look better” at the expense of helping students. </p> <p> <em></em></p> <p><em>College Challenges</em>. Groups identified issues and concerns at the college level, including pressure by administration and governing boards to move students through programs; consistency and competition among campuses in a multi-campus system; cultural changes with the shift to an emphasis on completion; lack of sufficient orientation and training for new employees; differing department goals; and practices and procedures that slow student progress or inhibit student success, such as cancelled classes and class size. <span style="text-decoration: underline;"></span><br /><br /> <strong>What Promise Do You See in the National Focus on Completion?</strong><br /><br /> Participants were asked to identify what they consider the promise of the Completion Agenda—what promise does it hold for students, educators, colleges, and communities? One group began by posting a pointed second question, “Why are we doing this if there are no promises?” Overall, responses focused on the promise at both national and local levels, with benefits for the students, colleges, communities, and the entire country.<strong></strong><br /><br /> <em>The National Conversation</em>. Responses in this theme reflect the overall national-to-local flavor of  answers, ranging from “regain international stature” to “has brought attention to the community colleges and all they offer.” One group noted that “the national conversation demonstrates interest in the topic.” Another response expressed this interest a little differently: “It’s good that people care about student success.”<br /> <em></em></p> <p><em>Collaboration</em>. Participants saw opportunities for collaboration as a promise of the completion conversation, including collaboration within colleges and across education sectors. Descriptions ranged from “allows for greater collaboration across college functions” and “encourages collaborative ‘system-wide’ thinking across community college systems” to “The Completion Agenda has prompted conversations among all levels of institutions,” and “aligning curriculum from early childhood education to ‘completion’ of college.” <br /><br /> <em>Retention</em>. Groups indicated that the Completion Agenda is “raising awareness of noncompletion,” and “beginning with the end in mind,” while causing “more proactive student/institution communication” and “more focus on goal development.” <br /><br /> <em>Benefits for Students</em>. In terms of promise for students, participants turned to the career opportunities and accompanying financial benefits related to earning a college credential. One group explained, “Students with a degree are absolutely in a better position to gain employment. The completion emphasis forces colleges to reach more students and help them succeed.” Others cited increased lifetime earnings, having “an edge in the global marketplace,” “better way of life,” and “gainful employment.” One response connected completion, as “an opportunity to bring people out of poverty,” with stabilizing the national economy. Not all responses focused on financial rewards, though, as others noted “improved student success and satisfaction” and college personnel “rallying around the students to help them complete.”<br /><br /> <em>Benefits for the Community</em>. As with benefits for students, benefits for the community included economic matters. From students being better trained to enter the workforce and the consequent attraction of more higher-wage jobs, participants saw local economic development as a promise of the Completion Agenda. Other benefits of an educated population were also included in responses, such as decreased crime rates and increased civic engagement. One group responded that completion “can ‘equalize’ the playing field for all social classes.”<br /><br /> <em>Benefits for the College</em>. On campuses, conversations about completion are, according to one participant group, “opening up dialogue to innovation in our approaches/strategies.” Other groups had similar comments focused on being “at the table” for the completion conversation, whether in internal college conversations or external discussions with communities, business and industry, workforce development, and other education sectors. The promise of the Completion Agenda also included improving processes and policies that impede student success; using resources more efficiently and meaningfully; and “redefining our role in society.” Professional development was also identified with the promise of the completion emphasis, with the need for more staff and new roles for staff, along with “greater focus on pedagogy” and “improved quality in services and programs.” Participants also indicated that, “National discussions on completion may provide more funding and programs” from government agencies and foundations.<br /><br /> <strong>What Are the Big Questions You Have Regarding Student Success and Completion?</strong><br /><br /> Finally, participants were asked to identify their own big questions about the completion conversation, and the groups responded with scores of questions. Most questions fell into five major themes, including (a) the definition of completion; (b) engaging and supporting students to completion and careers; (c) employability and a living wage; (d) joining the conversation; and (e) college needs. In this section, a few examples of questions are listed below each theme.<br /><br /> <em>The Definition of Completion</em></p> <ul> <li>Why must there be universal agreement on the definition of completion?</li> <li>What if a student only wants to focus on specific skills? </li> <li>What if the national definition does not match the institution's? Are differing ideas accommodated?</li> <li>Are student success and completion the same thing?</li> <li>Whose definition matters?</li> </ul> <p><em>Engaging and Supporting Students to Completion and Careers</em></p> <ul> <li>What resources and motivations do we (college) provide to help students get the degree? </li> <li>What types of career counseling are students getting? Can it be made mandatory?</li> <li>How do we prepare students for specific job duties, with broad skills so they can be adaptable to change?</li> <li>What are the barriers that prevent our students from succeeding (including the ones we create)?</li> <li>How do student learning outcomes connect to student completion and student “success”?</li> </ul> <p><em>Employability and a Living Wage</em></p> <ul> <li>Will they (completers) have jobs? </li> <li>Is our society ready to handle the number of college graduates? Are we over-saturating the market?</li> <li>Will debt swamp the economy?</li> </ul> <p><em>Joining the Conversation</em></p> <ul> <li>How can we impress upon leadership the importance of inviting front line staff and support personnel to these conversations and training?</li> <li>What will happen when the new administration is in place, a new president? Who drives the conversation when politics change?<strong></strong></li> <li>Will we (government, foundations, education) stay focused on this or move to another initiative? How do we get past the “flavor of the day” approach?</li> <li>Do people still see the same value in education they once did?</li> <li>Will this conversation lead to effective actions?</li> </ul> <p><em>College Needs</em></p> <ul> <li>Are we staffed to address concerns? Where are trained teachers to meet demand? </li> <li>How do we improve our tracking? How do we know when someone has completed? </li> <li>Where are the established resources in place at other institutions we can utilize? </li> <li>How do we get the public to recognize the worth and value of community colleges? </li> <li>Will resources exist to help us move to a culture of completion? Will colleges change what we do and/or should be doing to chase funding? </li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><em>Content for this issue of </em>Learning Abstracts <em>came from participants in the League's 2014 Learning Summit symposium on Faculty and Staff Engagement, held June 10, 2014, in Chandler, Arizona. Responses were compiled by League staff. Contact: <a title="wilson@league.org" href="mailto:wilson@league.org" target="_blank">Cynthia Wilson</a>, Vice President, Learning and Research, League for Innovation in the Community College.</em></p> <p><em>Opinions expressed in </em>Learning Abstracts <em>are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College.<br /></em></p> <ul> </ul> The Cross Papers, Number 18, Fellowship Recipient Announced urn:uuid:879C1E10-1422-1766-9A06954F04E4E767 2014-10-06T01:10:43Z 2014-10-06T02:10:00Z <p>Karen Hattaway, Distinguished Professor at San Jacinto College North in Texas, is the recipient of The Cross Papers Fellowship for 2014-2015.</p> The League for Innovation in the Community College <p>According to the 2014-2015 recipient of The Cross Papers Fellowship, Karen Hattaway, community college faculty can identify what works and develop new engagement strategies for all students, including those who are struggling with content and concepts, through intentional and expert observation of their students as they learn. In Number 18 of <em>The Cross Papers</em> series, Hattaway will explore ways faculty inquiry groups can help novice and veteran instructors learn more about learning by using daily interactions with students, and in the process improve both their own teaching and their students' learning. </p> <p>In her proposal, Hattaway, who is a Distinguished Professor at San Jacinto College North, used the example of student interaction with traditional and new-media texts, arguing that to become successful learners, students must not only manage these texts in many disciplines, but also create their own texts to master and apply concepts in all their courses. Faculty inquiry groups provide opportunities for instructors to research, collaborate, develop, and evaluate ideas and practices designed to help students engage meaningfully with subject matter in the courses they take.</p> <p><em>The Cross Papers</em> began in 1997 as a resource to provide community college faculty with practical, effective instructional techniques based in educational theory and research. "For almost 18 years, community college educators have used <em>The Cross Papers</em> to stimulate discussion among new and veteran faculty," said Gerardo de los Santos, League President and CEO. "<em>The Cross Papers</em> are a great resource for faculty to design teaching and learning activities that meet the needs of the diverse groups of students who fill their classes every day."</p> <p>The format for <em>The Cross Papers</em> monographs was established by K. Patricia Cross, who wrote the first seven issues. After retiring, she ensured continuation of the series by working with the League to establish <em>The Cross Papers</em> Fellowship. With her generous support, the League is able to continue providing this important professional development resource for community college faculty.</p> <p>"I am excited and honored," said Hattaway. "I have read and incorporated many of <em>The Cross</em> <em>Papers</em> into my own teaching. My goal is to contribute to this tradition by offering sound ideas that can translate productively into engaged teaching and learning."</p> <p>In addition to writing the 18th issue of <em>The Cross Papers</em>, Hattaway will present her work during a Special Session at the League's <a href="/i2015/" target="_blank">2015 <em>Innovations</em> conference</a> in Boston. She will be available to sign copies of the monograph during the conference's opening reception.</p> <p><em>The Cross Papers</em> Fellowship includes a stipend of $2,000 to support research and writing, complimentary registration to the 2015<em> Innovations</em> conference, travel expenses up to $1,000 to attend the conference, a plaque commemorating the recipient's designation as a <em>Cross Papers</em> Fellow, and ten copies of the print edition of <em>The Cross Papers</em> issue. </p> <p>Each January, the League invites community college practitioners and scholars to submit proposals for <em>The Cross Papers</em> Fellowship. Proposals are due in April and recipients are notified by mid-summer. Announcements are made in the League's newsletter, <em><a href="/leagueconnections/current">League Connections</a></em>.</p> <p>To purchase copies of past issues of <em>The Cross Papers</em>, visit the <a href="/store" target="_blank">League Store</a>. Number 18 will be available in March 2015. All issues of <em>The Cross Papers</em> are available in digital form through <a style="font-weight: normal;" href="/istream" target="_blank">iStream</a>, the League's web-based, multimedia portal for faculty, staff, administration, and students.</p>